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University of Pennsylvania
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Motto Leges sine moribus vanae
Motto in English Laws without morals are in vain
Established 1740[1]
Type Private
Endowment US $5.68 billion[2]
President Amy Gutmann
Academic staff 4,127[3]
Students 20,643[3]
Undergraduates 10,337[3]
Postgraduates 10,306[3]
Location Philadelphia, PA, USA
Campus Urban, Template:Convert/LonAoffDbSoffNa total: Template:Convert/LonAoffDbSoffNa, University City campus; Template:Convert/LonAoffDbSoffNa, New Bolton Center; Template:Convert/LonAoffDbSoffNa, Morris Arboretum
Colors Red and blue Template:Color box Template:Color box
Athletics NCAA Division I
Nickname Quakers
Affiliations Ivy League, AAU, COFHE
Website upenn.edu
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The University of Pennsylvania (commonly referred to as Penn or UPenn), one of the eight members of the Ivy League, is a private research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Penn is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States[4], and is considered the first university in the United States, with both undergraduate and graduate studies. Penn is also one of the Colonial Colleges.

Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder, advocated an educational program that focused as much on practical education for commerce and public service as on the classics and theology. Penn was one of the first academic institutions to follow a multidisciplinary model pioneered by several European universities, concentrating multiple "faculties" (e.g., theology, classics, medicine) into one institution.[5] Penn offers a broad range of academic departments, an extensive research enterprise and a number of community outreach and public service programs. Penn is particularly well known for its medical school, dental school, school of business, law school, communications school, nursing school, veterinary school, its social sciences and humanities programs, as well as its biomedical teaching and research capabilities. Its undergraduate programs are also among the most selective in the country (12.3% acceptance rate).[6] Penn is also home to many firsts, including the first student union (Houston Hall, 1896),[7] the first school of medicine in North America (University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 1765), the first collegiate business school (Wharton, 1881), and the first general-purpose large-scale digital computer (ENIAC, 1946).

Penn is consistently included among the top 10 research universities in the world both in terms of quality and in terms of quantity of research.[8][9] In FY2009, Penn's academic research programs undertook more than $730 million in research, involving some 3,800 faculty, 1,000 postdoctoral fellows and 5,400 support staff/graduate assistants. Much of the funding is provided by the National Institutes of Health for biomedical research. Penn tops the Ivy League in annual spending, with a projected 2011 budget of $6.007 billion.[10] In 2008, it ranked fifth among U.S. universities in fundraising, bringing in about $475.96 million in private support.[11]

Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities.

HistoryEdit

File:College Hall and Ben Franklin Statue.jpg

In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield. Designed and built by Edmund Woolley, it was the largest building in the city and it was also planned to serve as a charity school. The fundraising, however, fell short and although the building was erected, the plans for both a chapel and the charity school were suspended. In the fall of 1749, eager to create a college to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals for the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania," his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia."[12] However, according to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first drew up a proposal for establishing the academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution." Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1743—Harvard, William and Mary, and Yale—Franklin's new school would not focus merely on education for the clergy. He advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study became the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum.(Citation needed)

Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees (November 13, 1749) the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from Independence Hall was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, which was still vacant, would be an even better site. On February 1, 1750 the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. In 1751 the Academy of Philadelphia, using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school also was opened in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. In 1755, the College of Philadelphia was chartered, paving the way for undergraduate instruction.

File:Penn campus 2.jpg

In 1899, Penn's Board of Trustees voted to change the University's founding date from 1749 to 1740, the date of "the creation of the earliest of the many educational trusts the University has taken upon itself."[13]

The institution was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Rev. William Smith's loyalist tendencies, the revolutionary State Legislature created a University of the State of Pennsylvania.[14] The result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791 the legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into the University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new board of trustees.[15] These three schools were part of the same institution and were overseen by the same board of Trustees.[14]

File:Universityofpennsylvaniacollegehall.jpeg

Penn has three claims to being the first university in the United States, according to university archives director Mark Frazier Lloyd: the 1765 founding of the first medical school in America made Penn the first institution to offer both "undergraduate" and professional education; the 1779 charter made it the first American institution of higher learning to take the name of "University"; and existing colleges were established as seminaries.[16]

After being located in downtown Philadelphia for more than a century, the campus was moved across the Schuylkill River to property purchased from the Blockley Almshouse in West Philadelphia in 1872, where it has since remained in an area now known as University City.

Educational innovationsEdit

Penn's educational innovations include: the nation's first medical school in 1765; the first university teaching hospital in 1874; the Wharton School, the world's first collegiate school of business, in 1881; the first American student union building, Houston Hall, in 1896;[17] the country's second school of veterinary medicine; and the home of ENIAC, the world's first electronic, large-scale, general-purpose digital computer in 1946. Penn is also home to the oldest continuously functioning psychology department in North America and is where the American Medical Association was founded.[18][19] Penn was also the first university to award a Ph.D. to an African-American woman, Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander, in 1921 (in economics).[20]

MottoEdit

Penn's motto is based on a line from Horace’s III.24 (Book 3, Ode 24), quid leges sine moribus vanae proficiunt? ("of what avail empty laws without [good] morals?") From 1756 to 1898, the motto read Sine Moribus Vanae. When it was pointed out that the motto could be translated as "Loose women without morals," the university quickly changed the motto to literae sine moribus vanae ("Letters without morals [are] useless"). In 1932, all elements of the seal were revised, and as part of the redesign it was decided that the new motto "mutilated" Horace, and it was changed to its present wording, Leges Sine Moribus Vanae ("Laws without morals [are] useless").[21]

ColorsEdit

The official school colors are red with hex value #990000, and blue with hex value #011F5B.[22] In printed materials they are PMS 201 red and PMS 288 blue.[23]

CampusEdit

File:Foliage at Penn 2005 035.jpg

Much of Penn's architecture was designed by the Cope & Stewardson firm, whose principal architects combined the Gothic architecture of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge with the local landscape to establish the Collegiate Gothic style. The present core campus covers over Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoffNa in a contiguous area of West Philadelphia's University City district; the older heart of the campus comprises the University of Pennsylvania Campus Historic District. All of Penn's schools and most of its research institutes are located on this campus. The surrounding neighborhood includes several restaurants and pubs, a large upscale grocery store, and a movie theater on the western edge of campus.

The Module 6 Utility Plant and Garage at Penn was designed by BLT Architects and completed in 1995. Module 6 is located at 38th & Walnut and includes spaces for 627 vehicles, Template:Convert/sqft of storefront retail operations, a 9,500-ton chiller module and corresponding extension of the campus chilled water loop, and a 4,000-ton ice storage facility.[24] In 2007, Penn acquired about Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoffNa between the campus and the Schuylkill River (the former site of the Philadelphia Civic Center and a nearby Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSonNa site owned by the United States Postal Service). Dubbed the Postal Lands, the site extends from Market Street on the north to Penn's Bower Field on the south. It encompasses the main U.S. Postal Building at 30th and Market Streets (the retail post office at the east end of the building will remain open), the Postal Annex between Chestnut Street and Walnut Street, the Vehicle Maintenance Facility Garage along Chestnut Street and the Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoffNa of surface parking south of Walnut Street. Over the next decade, the site will become the home to educational, research, biomedical, and mixed-use facilities. Penn also plans new connections between the campus and the city, including a pedestrian bridge. In 2010 Penn, in its first significant expansion across the Schuylkill River, purchased 23 acres from DuPont for storage and office space.

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The University also owns the Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSonNa Morris Arboretum in Chestnut Hill in northwestern Philadelphia, the official arboretum of the state of Pennsylvania. Penn also owns the Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSonNa New Bolton Center, the research and large-animal health care center of its Veterinary School. Located near Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, New Bolton Center received nationwide media attention when Kentucky Derby winner Barbaro underwent surgery at its Widener Hospital for injuries suffered while running in the Preakness Stakes.

Penn borders Drexel University and is near the University of the Sciences in Philadelphia.

LibrariesEdit

File:FisherFineArtsLibrary.JPG

Penn's library began in 1750 with a donation of books from cartographer Louis Evans. Twelve years later, then-provost William Smith sailed to England to raise additional funds to increase the collection size. More than 250 years later, it has grown into a system of 15 libraries (13 are on the contiguous campus) with 400 FTE employees and a total operating budget of more than $48 million. The library system holds 5.76 million book and serial volumes as well as 4.15 million microform items.[25] It subscribes to over 68,000 print serials and e-journals.[26]

Penn's Libraries, with associated school or subject area: Annenberg (School of Communications), located in the Annenberg School; Biddle (Law), located in the Law School; Biomedical, located adjacent to the Robert Wood Johnson Pavilion of the Medical School; Chemistry, located in the 1973 Wing of the Chemistry Building; Dental Medicine; Engineering, located on the second floor of the Towne Building in the Engineering School; Fine Arts, located within the Fisher Fine Arts Library, designed by Frank Furness; Katz Center for Advanced Judaic Studies, located on Walnut Street at Washington Square; Lea Library, located within the Van Pelt Library; Lippincott (Wharton School), located on the second floor of the Van Pelt-Dietrich Library Center; Math/Physics/Astronomy, located on the third floor of David Rittenhouse Laboratory; Museum (Anthropology); Rare Books and Manuscripts; Van Pelt-Dietrich Library Center (Humanities and Social Sciences) - location of Weigle Information Commons; Veterinary Medicine, located in Penn Campus and New Bolton Center; and High Density Storage.

The University MuseumEdit

Main article: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology

The University Museum was founded in 1887. During the early twentieth century UPM conducted some of the first and most important archaeological and anthropological expeditions to Egypt, Mesopotamia, Turkey, Africa, East Asia and South America, thus the collection includes a very large number of antiquities from ancient Egypt and the Middle East. Its most famous object is the goat rearing into the branches of a rosette-leafed plant, from the royal tombs of Ur. The museum also has a strong collection of Chinese artifacts. Features of its Beaux-Arts building include a dramatic rotunda and gardens that include Egyptian papyrus. The Penn Museum participates in scientific research focusing on the application of modern scientific techniques to aid the interpretation of archaeological contexts.

The Institute of Contemporary Art, which is based on Penn's campus, showcases various art exhibitions throughout the year.

ResidencesEdit

Main article: University of Pennsylvania College Houses

University residences include:

  • DuBois College House
  • Fisher Hassenfeld College House (formerly Woodland)
  • Gregory College House
  • Harnwell College House
  • Harrison College House
  • Hill College House
  • Kings Court English College House
  • Riepe College House (formerly Spruce House)
  • Rodin College House (formerly Hamilton College House)
  • Sansom Place East and West
  • Stouffer College House
  • Ware College House

Within the College Houses, Penn has nearly 40 themed residential programs for students with shared interests such as world cinema or science and technology. Many of the nearby homes and apartments in the area surrounding the campus are often rented by undergraduate students moving off campus after freshman year, as well as by graduate and professional students.

AcademicsEdit

Undergraduate schoolsEdit

The University of Pennsylvania has four undergraduate schools:
File:PENN 043.jpg

The College of Arts and Sciences is the undergraduate division of the School of Arts and Sciences, which also contains the Graduate Division and the College of Liberal and Professional Studies, Penn's division for non-traditional undergraduate and graduate students.

Penn has a strong focus on interdisciplinary learning and research. It offers joint-degree programs, unique majors, and academic flexibility. Penn's "One University" policy allows undergraduates access to courses at all of Penn's undergraduate and graduate schools, except the medical, veterinary and dental schools. Undergraduates at Penn may also take courses at Bryn Mawr, Haverford, and Swarthmore, under a reciprocal agreement known as the Quaker Consortium.

Graduate and professional schoolsEdit

The following schools offer graduate programs:
File:PennDentalSchool.jpg

Coordinated dual-degree and interdisciplinary programsEdit

Penn offers specialized coordinated dual-degree (CDD) programs, which award candidates degrees from multiple schools at the University upon completion of graduation criteria of both schools. Undergraduate programs include:

Dual-degree programs which lead to the same multiple degrees without participation in the specific above programs are also available. Unlike CDD programs, "dual degree" students fulfill requirements of both programs independently without involvement of another program. Specialized dual-degree programs include Liberal Studies and Technology as well as a Computer and Cognitive Science Program. Both programs award a degree from the College of Arts and Sciences and a degree from the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. In addition, the Vagelos Scholars Program in Molecular Life Sciences allows its students to either double major in the sciences or submatriculate and earn both a B.A. and a M.S. in four years.

For graduate programs, there are many formalized joint-degree graduate programs such as a joint J.D./MBA. Penn is also the home to interdisciplinary institutions such as the Institute for Medicine and Engineering, the Joseph H. Lauder Institute for Management and International Studies, the Institute for Research in Cognitive Science, and the Executive Master's in Technology Management Program.

Academic medical center and biomedical research complexEdit

Penn's health-related programs—including the Schools of Nursing, Medicine, Dental Medicine, and Veterinary Medicine, and programs in bioengineering (School of Engineering) and health management (the Wharton School)—are among the university's strongest academic components. The combination of intellectual breadth, research funding (each of the health sciences schools ranks in the top 5 in annual NIH funding), clinical resources and overall scale ranks Penn with only a small handful of peer universities in the U.S.

The size of Penn's biomedical research organization, however, adds a very capital intensive component to the university's operations, and introduces revenue instability due to changing government regulations, reduced federal funding for research, and Medicaid/Medicare program changes. This is a primary reason highlighted in bond rating agencies' views on Penn's overall financial rating, which ranks one notch below its academic peers. Penn has worked to address these issues by pooling its schools (as well as several hospitals and clinical practices) into the University of Pennsylvania Health System, thereby pooling resources for greater efficiencies and research impact.

Admissions selectivityEdit

Penn is one of the most selective universities in the United States. For the Class of 2015 entering in the fall of 2011, the University received a record-setting 31,659 applications and admitted 12.26 percent of the applicants, marking Penn's most selective admissions cycle in the history of the University.[27] Further, Penn consistently ranks among the 10 toughest schools to get into, according to the Princeton Review.[28] The Atlantic also ranked Penn among the 10 most selective schools in the country.

At the graduate level, Penn's admissions rates, like most universities', vary considerably based on school and program. Based on admission statistics from U.S. News and World Report, Penn's most selective programs include its law school, the health care schools (medicine, dental medicine, nursing, and veterinary), and its business school.

RankingsEdit

Template:Infobox US university ranking U.S. News & World Report ranked Penn #5 (tied with Stanford) for undergraduate education in its 2011 review. Penn is ranked fifth in the nation behind Harvard, Princeton, Yale and Columbia.[29] In the past, Penn was ranked #4 by U.S. News in 2005 and 2010.

In 2010 Penn ranked 12th in the QS World University Rankings and 19th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings[30][31] (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings).[32] In 2007, Penn placed 15th on the Shanghai Jiao Tong University's Academic Ranking of World Universities.[33] According to the Mines ParisTech International Professional Ranking, Penn ranks 7th (tied with University of Oxford and Duke University), and 3rd nationally only behind Harvard and Stanford.[34] The Center for Measuring University Performance ranks Penn in its second-highest cluster of research universities in the nation, tied with Harvard, Duke University, and the University of Michigan.[35] Penn was also ranked 9th by the National Science Foundation in terms of R&D expenditures topping all other Ivy League Schools.[36] In 2007, The Washington Monthly ranked Penn 34th overall, and 17th among private institutions on its list of universities' contributions to national service (Research: total research spending; Ph.D.s granted in science and engineering; Community Service: the number of students in ROTC, Peace Corps, etc.; and social mobility: percentage of, and support for, Pell grant recipients).[37] Forbes.com ranked Penn #36 on their 2010 edition of "America's Best Colleges."[38]

The University of Pennsylvania's undergraduate business program at Wharton has retained its #1 ranking in U.S. News for many years. According to MINE ParisTech rankings in 2008, University of Pennsylvania is one of the top five universities in the world, just behind Tokyo University, Harvard University, Stanford University, and Keio University.[39]

File:Logan Hall EnterFront.JPG

Undergraduate programsEdit

Penn's arts and science programs are all well regarded, with many departments ranked amongst the nation's top 10. At the undergraduate level, Wharton, Penn's business school, and Penn's nursing school have maintained their #1, 2 or 3 rankings since U.S. News began reviewing such programs. In the School of Engineering, top departments are bioengineering (typically ranked in the top 5 by U.S. News), mechanical engineering, chemical engineering and nanotechnology. The school is also strong in some areas of computer science and artificial intelligence.

Graduate and professional programsEdit

Penn's graduate schools are among the most distinguished schools in their fields. Penn's Graduate School of Arts and Sciences is generally regarded as one of the top schools in the nation (see 1995 rankings by the National Research Council). A study updated the NRC rankings and adjusted them for faculty size and also factored out reputational surveys (saying that such surveys were lagging indicators of academic quality). That study, "The Rise of American Research Universities: Elites and Challengers in the Postwar Era," ranked Penn's arts, humanities, and sciences departments 7th in the US.

Among its professional schools, the schools of business, communication, dentistry, medicine, nursing, and veterinary medicine rank in the top 5 nationally (see U.S. News and National Research Council). Penn's Law School is ranked 7th, and its School of Education and School of Social Policy & Practice are ranked in the top 10 (see U.S. News). In the 2009 QS Global 200 Business Schools Report,[40] Penn was ranked 2nd in North America.

Student lifeEdit

Main article: Student life at the University of Pennsylvania
File:Winter Penn 010.jpg

DemographicsEdit

Of those accepted for admission to the Class of 2013, 39.2 percent are Asian, Hispanic, African, or Native American. Women comprise 51.3 percent of all students currently enrolled.

More than 13% of the first year class are international students. Of the international students accepted to the Class of 2008, 48.1% were from Asia; 15.8% were from Africa and the Middle East; 14.1% were from Europe; 11.7% were from Canada and Mexico; 10% were from the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; 0.4% were from Australia and the Pacific Islands. A total of 2,440 international students applied for admission to Penn's undergraduate schools for the Class of 2008, and 489 (20%) were accepted.

Demographics for Class of 2013 [41]
Multicultural background Number enrolled Percent of class
American Indian 13 0.5%
Asian 642 25.9%
Black 206 8.3%
Caucasian 1422 57.4%
Hispanic 194 7.8%

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Selected student organizationsEdit

The Philomathean Society, founded in 1813, is the United States' oldest continuously-existing collegiate literary society. The student-run TV station UTV13 is the oldest college TV station in the country. The Mask and Wig Club is the oldest all-male musical comedy troupe in the country. The University of Pennsylvania Glee Club, founded in 1862, is one of the oldest continually operating collegiate choruses in the United States. Its best-known and longest-serving director was Bruce Montgomery, who led the club from 1956 until 2000.

The University of Pennsylvania Band has been a part of student life since 1897. The Penn Band performs at football and basketball games as well as university functions (e.g. commencement and convocation) throughout the year. It has a current membership of approximately 80 students. "The Red and the Blue" and "Fight On Pennsylvania" are notable songs commonly played and sung at university events and games.

File:The Castle.jpg

Selected Penn publicationsEdit

  • 'Almanac' - The Official Publication of Record, Opinion and News at the University of Pennsylvania
  • CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal
  • The Daily Pennsylvanian - Penn's independent, student-run newspaper; published since 1885; regularly wins Pacemaker and CSPA Gold Circle awards
  • First Call Magazine - Penn's undergraduate magazine
  • F-word: A Collection of Feminist Voices - a literary magazine about feminism, gender, and sexuality
  • Knowledge@Wharton - online business journal of the Wharton School
  • Penn Asian Review - journal related to all regions of Asia
  • Penn History Review - undergraduate history journal
  • Penn Triangle - science and technology magazine founded in 1899; oldest of Penn's student-run journals; a student-run SEAS publication
  • PennScience - undergraduate science research journal
  • SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices & Ethics - undergraduate journal of Philosophy, Politics, and Economics
  • Pennsylvania Punch Bowl - Penn's humor magazine, founded in 1889; one of the nation's oldest and most acclaimed humor magazines
  • PoliComm - journal of political communication
  • Res - undergraduate journal of research writing
  • Penn Political Review Magazine - Penn's primary outlet for student sociopolitical thought
  • Penn Bioethics Journal - journal of bioethics
  • Sound Politicks - undergraduate political science journal
  • Under The Button - online blog written by staff of the Daily Pennsylvanian and 34th Street magazine
  • The WALK - fashion magazine with bi-semester print publications, currently launching a website

Religious lifeEdit

Unlike many of its Ivy peers, Penn was not founded with the intention of preparing men for ministerial vocations, nor was the university affiliated with any one particular religious body. Franklin envisioned an institution that would provide students with a liberal arts education: not devoid of religion, but including religion as one among many fields of study.

As a result, Penn has no central area for religious worship and does not supply funding for religious groups, although it does maintain adequate resources for religious students. Its Office of the Chaplain hosts three staff members including the University Chaplain and Associate Chaplain, in addition to an Interfaith Fellow. Penn recognizes more than 40 religiously affiliated student groups and another 40 campus ministries and local congregations connected to campus life, although without monetary support. PRISM (Programs in Religious, Interfaith, and Spirituality Matters) serves as the representative of all undergraduate faith organizations to the university and facilitates interfaith dialogue, cooperation, and events. PRISM has led the MAJIC trip to New Orleans over Spring Break two of the past three years.

Large campus religious groups include Hillel for Jewish students, Newman Center for Catholics, Muslim Students Association (MSA), Hindu Student Council/Young Jains of America (HSC/YJA), Penn Sikh Organization (PSO), Penn Students for Christ (PSC), Intervarsity Christian Fellowship (PennIV), the Christian Association (CA), the World Peace Buddhists @ Penn (WPB@P), Grace Covenant Church, and the Chabad Lubavitch House.

The Newman Center is the oldest Newman campus ministry in the country, and owns its own complex one block from campus. Penn Hillel's Steinhardt Hall is the largest Hillel building of any college or university in the country.[42] The Christian Association has produced notable ministers and scholars including Harvey Cox. Some of the other campus religious groups work out of the Religious Activity Commons (RAC) on Locust Walk.

Penn's Religious Studies and Judaic Studies departments are among the finest in the country. Notable professors include John DiIulio of Penn's Political Science Department, the first Director of the White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives. The CHORDS initiative, led jointly by the Associate Chaplain and a student board, organize service efforts with faith-based groups in the West Philadelphia community.

AthleticsEdit

File:Penn Athletics logo.png
Main article: Penn Quakers

Penn's sports teams are nicknamed the Quakers. They participate in the Ivy League and Division I (Division I FCS for football) in the NCAA. In recent decades they often have been league champions in football (14 times from 1982 to 2010) and basketball (22 times from 1970 to 2006). The first athletic team at Penn was its cricket team.[43]

RowingEdit

Main article: Rowing at Penn

Rowing at Penn dates back to at least 1854 with the founding of the University Barge Club. The university currently hosts both heavyweight and lightweight mens teams and an openweight women's team, all of which compete as part of the Eastern Sprints League. In addition to several world class and legendary crews through the years, Penn Rowing has both enjoyed and produced a long list of world famous coaches and olympians, including John B. Kelly, Jr., Joe Burk, Rusty Callow, Harry Parker, and Ted Nash. The teams row out of College Boat Club, #11 Boathouse Row. The program is currently under the direction of mens head coach Greg Myhr.

RugbyEdit

Main article: University of Pennsylvania Rugby Team

The Penn Men's Rugby Football Club is recognized as the one of the oldest collegiate rugby teams in America. The earliest documentation of its existence comes from the Daily Pennsylvanian, October 22, 1910: "Penn's Rugby Team Students Practice on Franklin Field at 7 o'clock am":

"Such is the devotion to English rugby football on the part of University of Pennsylvania's students from New Zealand, Australia, and England that they meet on Franklin Field at 7 o'clock every morning and practice the game. The varsity track and football squads monopolize the field to such an extent that the early hours of the morning are the only ones during which the rugby enthusiasts can play. Any time except Friday, Saturday and Sunday, a squad of 25 men may be seen running through the hardest kind of practice after which they may divide into two teams and play a hard game. Once a week, captain CC Walton, '11, dental, who hails from New Zealand, gives the enthusiastic players a blackboard talk in which he explains the intricacies of the game in detail…" - Daily Pennsylvanian, 22 October 1910

The team existed on and off during the World Wars, with the current club having it roots in the 1960s. While the current team no longer rises so early in the morning for practice, the tradition of hard work and enthusiasm developed by CC Walton lives on.

The club continues to strive for the highest level of play, while also enjoying the camaraderie and social aspects of the game. In 1992, Penn won the Ivy League Championship, defeating Dartmouth in the final.[44] In 2004, Penn Men's Rugby won the Eastern Pennsylvania Rugby Union championship.

FootballEdit

Penn first fielded a football team against Princeton at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia on November 11, 1876.[45]

File:FranklinFieldPenn.jpg
Penn football made many contributions to the sport in its early days. During the 1890s, Penn's famed coach and alumnus George Washington Woodruff introduced the quarterback kick, a forerunner of the forward pass, as well as the place-kick from scrimmage and the delayed pass. In 1894, 1895, 1897, and 1904, Penn was generally regarded as the national champion of collegiate football.[46] The achievements of two of Penn's outstanding players from that era—John Heisman and John Outland—are remembered each year with the presentation of the Heisman Trophy to the most outstanding college football player of the year, and the Outland Trophy to the most outstanding college football interior lineman of the year.

In addition, each year the Bednarik Award is given to college football's best defensive player. Chuck Bednarik (Class of 1949) was a three-time All-American center/linebacker who starred on the 1947 team and is generally regarded as Penn's all-time finest. In addition to Bednarik, the '47 squad boasted four-time All-American tackle George Savitsky and three-time All-American halfback Skip Minisi. All three standouts were subsequently elected to the College Football Hall of Fame, as was their coach, George Munger (a star running back at Penn in the early '30s). Bednarik went on to play for 12 years with the Philadelphia Eagles, becoming the NFL's last 60-minute man. He was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1969. During his presidency of the institution from 1948 to 1953, Harold Stassen attempted to recultivate Penn's heyday of big-time college football, but the effort lacked support and was short-lived.

ESPN's College GameDay traveled to Penn to highlight the Harvard-Penn game on November 17, 2002, the first time the popular college football show had visited an Ivy League campus.

File:The Palestra.JPG

BasketballEdit

Main article: Penn Quakers men's basketball

Penn basketball is steeped in tradition. Penn made its only (and the Ivy League's second) Final Four appearance in 1979, where the Quakers lost to Magic Johnson-led Michigan State in Salt Lake City. (Dartmouth twice finished second in the tournament in the 1940s, but that was before the beginning of formal League play.) Penn's team is also a member of the Philadelphia Big 5, along with La Salle, Saint Joseph's, Temple, and Villanova. In 2007, the men's team won its third consecutive Ivy League title and then lost in the first round of the NCAA Tournament to Texas A&M.

FacilitiesEdit

Franklin Field is where the Quakers play football, field hockey, lacrosse, sprint football, and track and field (and formerly soccer). It is the oldest stadium still operating for football games and was the first stadium to sport two tiers. It hosted the first commercially televised football game, was once the home field of the Philadelphia Eagles, and was the site of early Army – Navy games. Today it is also used by Penn students for recreation such as intramural and club sports, including touch football and cricket. Franklin Field hosts the annual collegiate track and field event "the Penn Relays."

Penn's home court, the Palestra, is an arena used for men's and women's basketball teams, volleyball teams, wrestling team, and Philadelphia Big Five basketball, as well as high school sporting events. The Palestra has hosted more NCAA Tournament basketball games than any other facility. Penn baseball plays its home games at Meiklejohn Stadium.

The Olympic Boycott Games of 1980 were held at the University of Pennsylvania in response to Moscow's hosting of the 1980 Summer Olympics following the Soviet incursion in Afghanistan. Twenty-nine of the boycotting nations participated in the Boycott Games.

ControversiesEdit

The school gained notoriety in 1993 for the water buffalo incident in which a student who told a noisy group of black students to "shut up, you water buffalo" was charged with violating the University's racial harassment policy.

Notable peopleEdit

File:Benjamin Franklin statue in front of College Hall.JPG
Main article: List of University of Pennsylvania people

Notable University of Pennsylvania alumni include eight signers of the Declaration of Independence: George Clymer, Francis Hopkinson, Thomas McKean, Robert Morris, William Paca, George Ross, Benjamin Rush, and James Wilson; nine signers of the Constitution: George Clymer, Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll, Rufus King, Thomas Mifflin, Gouverneur Morris, Robert Morris, Hugh Williamson, and James Wilson; three United States Supreme Court justices: William J. Brennan, Jr., Owen Roberts, and James Wilson; and one president of the United States: William Henry Harrison.[48] Other notable Penn alumni include the president of Côte d'Ivoire Alassane Ouattara, entrepreneurs Warren Buffett,[49] William S. Paley (former president of CBS), Ralph J. Roberts (founder of Comcast), Elon Musk (founder of Paypal, Tesla Motors, and SpaceX), Marty Lipton (founder of Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen & Katz), and Donald Trump, poets Ezra Pound and William Carlos Williams, linguist and political theorist Noam Chomsky, counter-terrorism expert and author Richard A. Clarke, recording artist John Legend, football athlete and coach John Heisman, and various Nobel laureates. Twenty-six Penn affiliates have won Nobel Prizes, of whom 4 are current faculty members and 9 are alumni.(Citation needed)

See alsoEdit

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NotesEdit

  1. The University officially uses 1740 as its founding date and has since 1899. The ideas and intellectual inspiration for the academic institution stem from 1749, with a pamphlet published by Benjamin Franklin. When Franklin's institution was established, it inhabited a schoolhouse built in 1740 for another school, which never came to practical fruition. Penn archivist Mark Frazier Lloyd [1] notes: “In 1899, Penn’s Trustees adopted a resolution that established 1740 as the founding date, but good cases may be made for 1749, when Franklin first convened the Trustees, or 1751, when the first classes were taught [at the affiliated secondary school for boys, Academy of Philadelphia], or 1755, when Penn obtained its collegiate charter [to become a post-secondary institution, the College of Philadelphia]." Princeton's library [2] presents another, diplomatically phrased view.
  2. As of FY 2010. "upenn.edu". http://www.upenn.edu/about/facts.php. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Penn: Fact and Figures". University of Pennsylvania. 2009. http://www.upenn.edu/about/facts.php. Retrieved 2010-09-23. 
  4. Penn is the fourth-oldest using the founding dates claimed by each institution. Penn, Princeton and Columbia originated within a few years of each other. In 1899, Penn officially changed its "founding" date from 1749 to 1740, affecting its rank. See Building Penn's Brand for the reasons why Penn did this. Princeton University implicitly challenges this [3], also claiming to be fourth. [4] To further complicate the comparison, a Presbyterian minister named William Tennent and his son Gilbert Tennent operated a "Log College" in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, from 1726 until 1746; some have suggested a connection between it and the College of New Jersey (later Princeton) because five members of Princeton's first Board of Trustees were affiliated with the Log College, including Gilbert Tennent, William Tennent, Jr., and Samuel Finley, the latter of whom later became President of Princeton. (All twelve members of Princeton's first Board of Trustees were Presbyterian leaders in the New Jersey and Pennsylvania area.[5]) This antecedent relationship, if considered a formal lineage with institutional continuity, would justify pushing Princeton's founding date back to 1726, earlier than Penn's 1740. However, Princeton has not done so, and a Princeton historian says that "the facts do not warrant" such an interpretation. [6] Columbia University also implicitly challenges Penn's use of either 1740 or 1749, as it claims to be the fifth oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, based upon its charter date of 1754 and Penn's charter date of 1755. [7]
  5. "Penn: Penn's Heritage". Upenn.edu. http://www.upenn.edu/about/heritage.php. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  6. http://www.dailypennsylvanian.com/article/admissions-rate-drops-123-percent
  7. http://www.archives.upenn.edu/histy/features/studtorg/stugovt/housclub.html
  8. http://www.highimpactuniversities.com/rpi.html
  9. http://ranking.heeact.edu.tw/en-us/2010/TOP/100
  10. "Template:Citation error". http://www.upenn.edu/about/facts.php. 
  11. Charitable contributions to colleges and universities in the United States grew by 6.2 percent in 2008 [8]
  12. "A Brief History of the University, University of Pennsylvania Archives". Archives.upenn.edu. http://www.archives.upenn.edu/histy/genlhistory/brief.html. Retrieved 2010-12-09. 
  13. Cheyney, Edward Potts. History of the University of Pennsylvania 1740–1940 University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. 1940. pp 46–48.
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Penn in the 18th Century, University of Pennsylvania Archives". Archives.upenn.edu. http://www.archives.upenn.edu/histy/features/1700s/penn1700s.html. Retrieved 2010-12-09. 
  15. "Penn in the 18th Century". University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania. http://www.archives.upenn.edu/histy/features/1700s/penn1700s.html. Retrieved 2006-04-29. 
  16. "The University of Pennsylvania: America's First University". University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania. http://www.archives.upenn.edu/histy/genlhistory/firstuniv.html. Retrieved 2006-04-29. 
  17. Building America's First University: An Historical and Architectural Guide to the University of Pennsylvania George E. Thomas, David Bruce Brownlee, p3
  18. "Welcome to the Department of Psychology". University of Pennsylvania. http://www.psych.upenn.edu/. Retrieved 2006-04-29. 
  19. "History of the School of Medicine". University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on 2005-12-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20051215193941/http://www.archives.upenn.edu/histy/schools/med.html. Retrieved 2006-04-29. 
  20. "Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander", University of Pennsylvania Almanac, accessed 31 March 2011
  21. Hughes, Samuel (2002). "Whiskey, Loose Women, and Fig Leaves: The University's seal has a curious history". Pennsylvania Gazette 100 (3). http://www.upenn.edu/gazette/0102/0102finals.html. 
  22. "Penn: Web Style Guide: Color Values". Upenn.edu. http://www.upenn.edu/webguide/style_guide/color.html. Retrieved 2010-12-09. 
  23. "Logo Style Guide". http://www.business-services.upenn.edu/publicationservices/pdf/logostyleguide.pdf. Retrieved 2010-12-09. 
  24. http://www.blta.com/#/3/0/4/7/
  25. "Penn: Facts and Figures". http://www.upenn.edu/about/facts.php. Retrieved 2009-12-24. 
  26. "Penn Library Data Farm". http://datafarm.library.upenn.edu/. Retrieved 2009-12-24. 
  27. "Admissions rate falls to 12.3 percent". http://thedp.com/article/admissions-rate-drops-123-percent. Retrieved 2011-03-31. 
  28. "The Ten Toughest Schools to Get Into". The Ten Toughest Schools to Get Into. MSN Encarta. http://encarta.msn.com/college_article_tentoughestschools/the_most_competitive_admissions.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27. Template:Dead link
  29. "USNews.com: America's Best Colleges 2010: National Universities: Top Schools". Colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. 2010-08-17. http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/national-universities-rankings. Retrieved 2010-12-09. 
  30. "QS World University Rankings 2010 Results". http://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/world-university-rankings/2010/results. 
  31. "World University Rankings". The Times Higher Educational Supplement. 2010. http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2010-2011/top-200.html. Retrieved 2010-09-16. 
  32. "Times Higher Education". Times Higher Education. 2008-10-09. http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/hybrid.asp?typeCode=243&pubCode=1. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  33. "学院简介 上海交通大学高等教育研究院". Ed.sjtu.edu.cn. http://ed.sjtu.edu.cn/rank/2007/ARWU2007_Top100.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  34. "International Professional Ranking of Higher Education Institutions 2009 Survey". MINES Paris Tech. http://www.mines-paristech.fr/Fr/Actualites/PR/EMP-ranking.pdf. Retrieved 2010-12-09. 
  35. "The Top American Research Universities 2009 Annual Report". TheCenter for Measuring University Performance. http://mup.asu.edu/research2009.pdf. Retrieved 7 May 2011. 
  36. "Table 31. R&D expenditures at universities and colleges, ranked by all R&D expenditures for the first 200 institutions, by source of funds: FY 2006". http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf08300/pdf/tab31.pdf. Retrieved 2010-12-09. 
  37. "2007 College Guide". Washingtonmonthly.com. http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2007/0709.collegeguide.html. Retrieved 2010-12-09. 
  38. "America's Best Colleges". Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2010/94/colleges-09_Americas-Best-Colleges_Rank_9.html. Retrieved 2010-02-22.  Template:Dead link
  39. "Professional Ranking of World Universities 2008 Survey". MINES Paris Tech. http://www.mines-paristech.fr/Actualites/PR/Archives/2008/EMP-ranking.pdf. Retrieved 2010-12-09. 
  40. "QS Global 200 Business Schools Report 2009 North America". http://www.topmba.com/mba-rankings/global-200-business-schools-report/top-business-schools-2009/north-america. 
  41. "Incoming Class Profile 2013" (php). UPenn. http://www.admissionsug.upenn.edu/profile/. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  42. "Virtual Tour of Steinhardt Hall - Building Opening". Penn Hillel. http://pennhillel.org/virtual-tour-steinhardt-hall-building-opening. Retrieved 2010-08-02. 
  43. Kieran, John (1932), "Sports of the Times," The New York Times, October 8, 1932, p. 22.
  44. www.ivyrugby.com
  45. Rottenberg, Dan (1985) "Fight On, Pennsylvania" Trustees of University of Pennsylvania pg. 25.
  46. Rottenberg, Dan (1985) "Fight On, Pennsylvania" Trustees of University of Pennsylvania pg. 28, 33–34.
  47. Strawbridge, Justus C. (1899). Ceremonies Attending the Unveiling of the Statue of Benjamin Franklin. Allen, Lane & Scott. ISBN 1103924354. http://books.google.com/?id=GOYEAAAAYAAJ&dq=justus+c+strawbridge&printsec=frontcover. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  48. William Henry Harrison, Ohio History Central Online Encyclopedia [9]: "At his father’s insistence, [he] studied medicine from 1790 to 1791 at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Upon his father’s death in 1791, Harrison immediately joined the United States Army."
  49. "Warren Buffett Biography". Beginnersinvest.about.com. 1930-08-30. http://beginnersinvest.about.com/cs/warrenbuffett/a/aawarrenbio.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 

External linksEdit

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