|University of Oxford|
University of Oxford seal
|Latin: Universitas Oxoniensis|
|Motto||Dominus Illuminatio Mea (Latin)|
|Motto in English||The Lord is my Light|
|Established||Unknown, teaching existed since Template:Birth year and age|
|Endowment||£3.0 billion (inc. colleges)|
|Chancellor||The Rt. Hon. Lord Patten of Barnes|
|Location||Oxford, England, UK|
|Colours||Template:Color box Oxford Blue|
The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University, or simply Oxford) is a university in Oxford, England. It is the second oldest surviving university in the world and the oldest in the English-speaking world. Although the exact date of its foundation remains unclear, there is evidence of teaching there as far back as the 11th century. The University grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. In post-nominals, the University of Oxford was historically abbreviated as Oxon. (from the Latin Oxoniensis), although Oxf is nowadays used in official university publications.
After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge, where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two ancient English universities have many common features and are often jointly referred to as Oxbridge. In addition to their cultural and practical associations, as a historic part of British society, they have a long history of rivalry with each other.
A member (or former member) of the University is called an Oxonian.
Most undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly essay-based tutorials at self-governing colleges and halls, supported by lectures and laboratory classes organised by University faculties and departments. League tables consistently list Oxford as one of the UK's best universities; the university regularly contends with Cambridge for first place in the tables. Oxford consistently ranks in the world's top 10. For more than a century, it has served as the home of the Rhodes Scholarship, which brings students from a number of countries to study at Oxford as postgraduates or for a second bachelor's degree.
Oxford is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities, the Coimbra Group, the G5, the League of European Research Universities, and the International Alliance of Research Universities. It is also a core member of the Europaeum and forms part of the 'Golden Triangle' of British universities.
The University of Oxford does not have a known date of foundation. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form in 1096, but it is unclear at what point a university came into being.
The expulsion of foreigners from the University of Paris in 1167 caused many English scholars to return from France and settle in Oxford. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188, and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190. The head of the University was named a chancellor from at least 1201, and the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two “nations”, representing the North (including the Scots) and the South (including the Irish and the Welsh). In later centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. Members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence, and maintained houses for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges to serve as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, and John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots: Balliol College bears his name. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life; Merton College thereby became the model for such establishments at Oxford, as well as at the University of Cambridge. Thereafter, an increasing number of students forsook living in halls and religious houses in favour of living in colleges.
The new learning of the Renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of the Greek language, and John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the Reformation and the breaking of ties with the Roman Catholic Church, Recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling especially at the University of Douai. The method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval Scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. In 1636, Chancellor William Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes; these to a large extent remained its governing regulations until the mid-19th century. Laud was also responsible for the granting of a charter securing privileges for the University Press, and he made significant contributions to the Bodleian Library, the main library of the university.
The university was a centre of the Royalist party during the English Civil War (1642–1649), while the town favoured the opposing Parliamentarian cause. From the mid-18th century onwards, however, the University of Oxford took little part in political conflicts.
The mid nineteenth century saw the impact of the Oxford Movement (1833–1845), led among others by the future Cardinal Newman. The influence of the reformed model of German university reached Oxford via key scholars such as Benjamin Jowett and Max Müller.
Administrative reforms during the 19th century included the replacement of oral examinations with written entrance tests, greater tolerance for religious dissent, and the establishment of four women's colleges. Twentieth century Privy Council decisions (such as the abolition of compulsory daily worship, dissociation of the Regius professorship of Hebrew from clerical status, diversion of theological bequests to colleges to other purposes) loosened the link with traditional belief and practice. Although the University's emphasis traditionally had been on classical knowledge, its curriculum expanded in the course of the 19th century to encompass scientific and medical studies.
The mid twentieth century saw many distinguished continental scholars, displaced by Nazism and Communism, relocating to Oxford.
The list of distinguished scholars at the University of Oxford is long and includes many who have made major contributions to British politics, the sciences, medicine, and literature. More than forty Nobel laureates and more than fifty world leaders have been affiliated with the University of Oxford.
The University passed a Statute in 1875 allowing its delegates to create preliminary and final examinations at roughly undergraduate level. The first four women's' colleges were established thanks to the activism of the Association for Promoting the Higher Education of Women (AEW). Lady Margaret Hall (1878) was followed by Somerville College in 1879; the first 21 students from Somerville and LMH attended lectures in rooms above an Oxford baker's shop. The first two colleges for women were followed by St Hugh's (1886), St Hilda's (1893) and St Anne's College (1952). Oxford was long considered a bastion of male privilege, and it was not until 7 October 1920 that women became eligible for admission as full members of the university and were given the right to take degrees . In 1927 a quota of female students was instituted by the University's dons, a ruling not abolished until 1957. However, until the 1970s all Oxford colleges were for men or women only, so that the number of women was effectively limited by the capacity of the women's colleges to admit students. It was not until 1959 that the women's colleges were given full collegiate status.
In 1974, five previously all-male colleges became co-educational. In 2008, St Hilda's became the last of the women's colleges to admit men also, so that all of the Oxford colleges are now co-educational. By 1988, 40% of undergraduates at Oxford were female; the ratio is now about 48:52 in men's favour.
The detective novel "Gaudy Night" by Dorothy Sayers – herself one of the first women to get an academic degree at Oxford – takes place in a (fictional) women's college at Oxford, and the issue of women's education is central to its plot.
As a collegiate university, Oxford's structure can be confusing to those unfamiliar with it. The university is a federation: it comprises over forty self-governing colleges and halls, along with a central administration headed by the Vice-Chancellor. The academic departments are located centrally within this structure; they are not affiliated with any particular college. Departments provide facilities for teaching and research, determine the syllabi and guidelines for the teaching of students, perform research, and deliver lectures and seminars. Colleges arrange the tutorial teaching for their undergraduates. The members of an academic department are spread around many colleges; though certain colleges do have subject alignments (e.g. Nuffield College as a centre for the social sciences), these are exceptions, and most colleges will have a broad mix of academics and students from a diverse range of subjects. Facilities such as libraries are provided on all these levels: by the central university (the Bodleian), by the departments (individual departmental libraries, such as the English Faculty Library), and by colleges (each of which maintains a multi-discipline library for the use of its members).
The university's formal head is the Chancellor (currently Lord Patten of Barnes), though as with most British universities, the Chancellor is a titular figure, rather than someone involved with the day-to-day running of the university. The Chancellor is elected by the members of Convocation, a body comprising all graduates of the university, and holds office until death.
The Vice-Chancellor, currently Andrew Hamilton, is the "de facto" head of the University. Five Pro-Vice-Chancellors have specific responsibilities for Education; Research; Planning and Resources; Development and External Affairs; and Personnel and Equal Opportunities. The University Council is the executive policy-forming body, which consists of the Vice-Chancellor as well as heads of departments and other members elected by Congregation, in addition to observers from the Student Union. Congregation, the "parliament of the dons", comprises over 3,700 members of the University’s academic and administrative staff, and has ultimate responsibility for legislative matters: it discusses and pronounces on policies proposed by the University Council. Oxford and Cambridge (which is similarly structured) are unique for this democratic form of governance.
Two university proctors, who are elected annually on a rotating basis from two of the colleges, are the internal ombudsmen who make sure that the university and its members adhere to its statutes. This role incorporates student welfare and discipline, as well as oversight of the university's proceedings. The collection of University Professors is called the Statutory Professors of the University of Oxford. They are particularly influential in the running of the graduate programmes within the University. Examples of Statutory Professors are the Chichele Professorships and the Drummond Professor of Political Economy. The various academic faculties, departments, and institutes are organised into four divisions, each with their own Head and elected board. They are the Humanities Division; the Social Sciences Division; the Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences Division; and the Medical Sciences Division.
The University of Oxford is a "public university" in the sense that it receives a large amount of public money from the government and from local authorities, but it is a "private university" in the sense that it is entirely self-governing and could choose to become entirely private by rejecting public funds.
- Main article: Colleges of the University of Oxford
There are thirty-eight colleges of the University of Oxford and six Permanent Private Halls, each controlling its membership and with its own internal structure and activities. All resident students, and most academic staff, must be members both of a college or hall, and of the university. The heads of Oxford colleges are known by various titles, according to the college, including warden, provost, principal, president, rector, master and dean. The colleges join together as the Conference of Colleges to discuss policy and to deal with the central University administration. Teaching members of the colleges (fellows and tutors) are collectively and familiarly known as dons, although the term is rarely used by the university itself. In addition to residential and dining facilities, the colleges provide social, cultural, and recreational activities for their members. Colleges have responsibility for admitting undergraduates and organising their tuition; for graduates, this responsibility falls upon the departments.
Teaching and degreesEdit
- Main article: Degrees of the University of Oxford
Undergraduate teaching is centered on the tutorial, where 1–4 students spend an hour with an academic discussing their week’s work, usually an essay (humanities, most social sciences, some mathematical, physical, and life sciences) or problem sheet (most mathematical, physical, and life sciences, and some social sciences). Students usually have one or two tutorials a week, and can be taught by academics at any other college—not just their own—as expertise and personnel requires. These tutorials are complemented by lectures, classes and seminars, which are organised on a departmental basis. Graduate students undertaking taught degrees are usually instructed through classes and seminars, though there is more focus upon individual research.
The university itself is responsible for conducting examinations and conferring degrees. The passing of two sets of examinations is a prerequisite for a first degree. The first set of examinations, called either Honour Moderations ("Mods" and "Honour Mods") or Preliminary Examinations ("Prelims"), are usually held at the end of the first year (after two terms for those studying Law, Theology, Philosophy and Theology, Experimental Psychology or Psychology, Philosophy and Physiology or after five terms in the case of Classics). The second set of examinations, the Final Honour School ("Finals"), is held at the end of the undergraduate course. Successful candidates receive first-, upper or lower second-, or third-class honours based on their performance in Finals. An upper second is the most usual result, and a first is generally prerequisite for graduate study. A "double first" reflects first class results in both Honour Mods. and Finals. Research degrees at the master's and doctoral level are conferred in all subjects studied at graduate level at the university. As a matter of tradition, bachelor's degree graduates are eligible, after seven years from matriculation and without additional study, to purchase for a nominal fee an upgrade of their bachelor's degree to a "MA" or Master of Arts. All MAs were members of Convocation and until 1913 all resident members of Convocation were members of Congregation. MAs, as members of Convocation, elected the Chancellor and Professor of Poetry, but recently Convocation has been widened to consist of all graduates.
Within these terms, Council determines for each year eight-week periods called Full Terms, during which undergraduate teaching takes place. These terms are shorter than those of many other British universities. Undergraduates are also expected to prepare heavily in the three holidays (known as the Christmas, Easter and Long Vacations).
Internally at least, the dates in the term are often referred to by a number in reference to the start of each full term, thus the first week of any full term is called "1st week" and the last is "8th week". The numbering of the weeks continues up to the end of the term, and begins again with negative numbering from the beginning of the succeeding term, through "minus first week" and "noughth week", which precedes "1st week". Weeks begin on a Sunday. Undergraduates must be in residence from Thursday of 0th week.
Academic dress is still commonly seen at Oxford; until the 1960s students wore it at all times (see Academic dress of the University of Oxford). It is required for examinations and when visiting university officers. Other traditions and customs vary by college, one of the most common being the requirement to wear gowns for dinner in hall.
In 2005/06 the University had an income of £608m, and the colleges £237m (of which £41m is a flow-through from the University). For the University, key sources were HEFCE (£166m) and research grants (£213m). For the colleges, the largest single source was endowments and interest (£82m) and residential charges (£47m). While the University has the larger operating budget, the colleges have a far larger aggregate endowment, at around £2.7bn compared to the University's £900m. The Central University's endowment, along with that of many of the colleges, is managed by the University's wholly owned endowment management office, Oxford University Endowment Management, formed in 2007.
The University also launched a fundraising campaign in May 2008, called Oxford Thinking – The Campaign for the University of Oxford. With a minimum goal of £1.25 billion, the Campaign is looking to support three areas: academic posts and programmes, student support, and buildings and infrastructure.
Oxford has no upper or lower limit on the age of those admitted as undergraduates. Historically, it was common for boys to become members of the university between the ages of fourteen and nineteen. Jeremy Bentham matriculated in 1761 at the age of thirteen, which was unusually young. At the present time, the usual age range of those admitted to study for first degrees begins at about seventeen, although the majority are eighteen or nineteen. Mature students, while not in great numbers in all colleges, are a higher proportion of those at Ruskin. In theory, much younger people can still be admitted to the university if they meet the entrance standard, and Ruth Lawrence matriculated at Oxford in 1983 at the age of twelve.
The admission process for undergraduates is extremely competitive and is undertaken by the individual colleges, working with each other to ensure that the best students gain a place at the University whichever college they choose. Selection is based on achieved and predicted exam results; candidate-submitted written work; school references; interviews, which are held between applicants and college tutors; and, in some subjects, written admission tests prior to interview. Prospective students apply through the UCAS application system, in common with most British universities, but (along with applicants for Cambridge) must observe an earlier deadline. Because of the high volume of applications and the direct involvement of the faculty in admissions, students are not permitted to apply to both Oxford and Cambridge in the same year, with the exception of applicants for Organ Scholarships and those applying to read for a second undergraduate degree.
The decentralised, college-based nature of the admissions procedure necessitates a number of mechanisms to ensure that the best students are offered admission to the University, regardless of whether the college they originally applied to can accommodate them. As such, colleges can 'pool' candidates to other colleges, whereby candidates can be interviewed at and/or offered admission to another college. Some courses may make "open offers" to some candidates, which do not carry an attachment to a particular college until A Level results day in August. Since 2007 the colleges, faculties and departments have published a "common framework" outlining the principles and procedures they observe.
Undergraduate and graduate students may name preferred colleges in their applications. For undergraduate students, an increasing number of departments practise college reallocation to ensure that the ratio between potential students and subject places available at all colleges are as uniform as possible. Students who named colleges which are over-subscribed are reallocated to under-subscribed colleges for their subjects. Generally, students from all backgrounds are encouraged to apply, as many factors besides academic performance are taken into account during the stringent admission procedure.
For the Department of Physics, college reallocation is done on a random basis after a shortlist of candidates is drawn up and before candidates are invited for interviews at the university. As a result of this, the college eventually offering a candidate a place to read a subject may not be the one he/she originally applied to.For graduate student admissions, many colleges express a preference for candidates who will be undertaking research in an area of interest of one of its fellows. St Hugh's College, for example, states that it accepts graduate students in most subjects, principally those in the fields of interest of the Fellows of the college. Perhaps as a consequence of this, it is not uncommon for a graduate student to be a member of his/her supervisor's college, although this is not an official university requirement. For graduate students, admission is first handled by the relevant department, and then by a college.
Template:Further The University states that its admissions policies avoid bias against candidates of certain socio-economic or educational backgrounds. However, the fairness of Oxford admissions has attracted public controversy through episodes such as the Laura Spence Affair in 2000. Gaining places at Oxford and Cambridge remains a central focus for many private and selective state schools, and the lack of a social mix at the university representing society at large remains a point of controversy. Veiled accusations of racism, however, have been refuted by comparison of A-level results with successful applications. In 2007, the University refined its admissions procedure to take into account the academic performance of its applicants' schools.
Students who apply from state schools and colleges have a broadly comparable acceptance rate to those from independent schools (19% and 24% of applicants accepted respectively, 2010). However, most pupils who are accepted from state schools come from 'elite' grammar and selective schools, rather than comprehensives. More than half of applications come from the state sector, and the University of Oxford funds many initiatives to attract applicants from this sector, including the new UNIQ Summer Schools, Oxford Young Ambassadors, Target Schools, and the FE Access Initiative. Most colleges also run their own access schemes and initiatives.
In 2002, the University of Oxford commissioned a research project under the auspices of Professor Anthony Heath. Almost 2,000 applicants for admission participated in the project; about one third of them were admitted. The project found that, if anything, admissions tutors treat applicants from state schools more favourably than applicants from private schools with the same attainment. The research also suggested that this discounting was justified as private school students need higher grades at entry to do as well as their state school educated peers in final university examinations. Finally, the study found that applicants to arts subjects had an advantage in admission when they displayed high levels of cultural capital.
Mature and part-time students are supported by the Oxford University Department for Continuing Education.
Scholarships and financial supportEdit
There are many opportunities for students at Oxford to receive financial help during their studies. The Oxford Opportunity Bursaries, introduced in 2006, are university-wide means-based bursaries available to any British undergraduate. With a total possible grant of £10,235 over a 3-year degree, it is the most generous bursary scheme offered by any British university. In addition, individual colleges also offer bursaries and funds to help their students. For graduate study, there are many scholarships attached to the University, available to students from all sorts of backgrounds, from Rhodes Scholarships to the new Weidenfeld Scholarships.
Students successful in early examinations are rewarded by their colleges with scholarships and exhibitions, normally the result of a long-standing endowment, although when tuition fees were first abolished, the amounts of money available became purely nominal. Scholars, and exhibitioners in some colleges, are entitled to wear a more voluminous undergraduate gown; "commoners" (originally those who had to pay for their "commons", or food and lodging) being restricted to a short, sleeveless garment. The term "scholar" in relation to Oxbridge, therefore, had a specific meaning as well as the more general meaning of someone of outstanding academic ability. In previous times, there were "noblemen commoners" and "gentlemen commoners", but these ranks were abolished in the 19th century. "Closed" scholarships, available only to candidates who fitted specific conditions such as coming from specific schools, exist now only in name.
From the inception of the Church of England until 1866 membership of the church was a requirement to receive the BA degree from Oxford, and "dissenters" were only permitted to receive the MA in 1871. Knowledge of Ancient Greek was required until 1920, and Latin until 1960. Women were admitted to degrees in 1920.
Oxford has more than 100 libraries, nearly 40 of which make up the Bodleian library system. Oxford's central research library is the Bodleian, founded by Sir Thomas Bodley in 1598 and opened in 1602. With over 11 million volumes housed on Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoff of shelving, it is the second-largest library in the UK, after the British Library. It is a legal deposit library, which means that it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the UK. As such, its collection is growing at a rate of over three miles (five kilometres) of shelving every year. Its main central site consists of the Radcliffe Camera, the Old Schools Quadrangle, the Clarendon Building, and the New Bodleian Building. A tunnel underneath Broad Street connects the buildings. There are plans to build a new book depository in Osney Mead, and to remodel the New Bodleian building to better showcase the library’s various treasures (which include a Shakespeare First Folio and a Gutenberg Bible) as well as temporary exhibitions. Several other libraries, such as the Bodleian Law Library, Indian Institute Library, Radcliffe Science Library and the Oriental Institute Library, also fall within the Bodleian’s remit.
As well as the Bodleian, there are a number of other specialised libraries in Oxford, such as the Sackler Library which holds classical collections. In addition, most academic departments maintain their own library, as do all colleges. The University’s entire collection is catalogued by the Oxford Libraries Information System, though with such a huge collection, this is an ongoing task. Oxford University Library Services, the head of which is Bodley’s Librarian, is the governing administrative body responsible for libraries in Oxford. The Bodleian is currently engaged in a mass-digitisation project with Google.
Oxford maintains a number of museums and galleries in addition to its libraries. The Ashmolean Museum, founded in 1683, is the oldest museum in the UK, and the oldest university museum in the world. It holds significant collections of art and archaeology, including works by Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Turner, and Picasso, as well as treasures such as the Scorpion Macehead, the Parian Marble and the Alfred Jewel. It also contains "The Messiah", a pristine Stradivarius violin, regarded by some as one of the finest examples in existence. The Ashmolean reopened in November 2009, after a £49m redevelopment, doubling the display space as well as providing new facilities.
The Museum of Natural History holds the University’s anatomical and natural history specimens. It is housed in a large neo-Gothic building on Parks Road, in the University’s Science Area. Among its collection are the skeletons of a Tyrannosaurus rex and triceratops, and the most complete remains of a dodo found anywhere in the world. It also hosts the Simonyi Professorship of the Public Understanding of Science, currently held by Marcus du Sautoy.Adjoining the Museum of Natural History is the Pitt Rivers Museum, founded in 1884, which displays the University’s archaeological and anthropological collections, currently holding over 500,000 items. It recently built a new research annexe; its staff have been involved with the teaching of anthropology at Oxford since its foundation, when as part of his donation General Augustus Pitt Rivers stipulated that the University establish a lectureship in anthropology.
The Museum of the History of Science is housed on Broad St in the world’s oldest-surviving purpose-built museum building. It contains 15,000 artifacts, from antiquity to the 20th century, representing almost all aspects of the history of science. In the Faculty of Music on St Aldate's is the Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, a collection mostly of instruments from Western classical music, from the medieval period onwards. The Botanic Garden is the oldest botanic garden in the UK, and the third-oldest scientific garden in the world. It contains representatives from over 90% of the world’s higher plant families. Christ Church Picture Gallery holds a collection of over 200 old master paintings.
In the subject tables of the Times Good University Guide 2008, Oxford is ranked as the top university in the UK with Cambridge as the second. Oxford is ranked first in Politics, Physiological Sciences, English, Fine Art, Business Studies, Middle Eastern and African Studies, Music, Philosophy, and also Education and Linguistics which it shares first with Cambridge. Oxford comes second after Cambridge in a further seventeen subjects. The University then takes three third-places and an equal-third, as well as a fourth, fifth, and equal-sixth place in one subject each.
In the Guardian's subject tables for institutions in tariff-band 6 (universities whose prospective students are expected to score 400 or more tariff points) Oxford took first place for Anatomy and Physiology, Anthropology, Biosciences, Business and Management Studies, Earth and Marine Sciences, Economics, English, Law, Materials and Mineral Engineering, Modern Languages, Music, Politics, Psychology, and Sociology. Oxford came second to Cambridge in Geography, Archaeology, Classics, History, History of Art, Mathematics, Philosophy, Theology and Religious Studies. Oxford came second in General Engineering, and third in Fine Art, General Engineering and Physics; fourth place in Chemistry and Medicine; second place in Computer Science and IT.
In the 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities, Oxford was ranked 10th in the world and second in Europe. In the 2010 QS World University Rankings Oxford University dropped a place to sixth in the world (while Cambridge University came first), falling from fifth (alongside Imperial College London) in the 2009 THE – QS World University Rankings (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings). It had been consistently in the top five since the rankings began in 2004. In 2009 it had been ranked second in the world for arts and humanities, third in life sciences and biomedicine, third in social sciences, and fifth in natural sciences. Oxford also came second in the world in terms of graduate employability. According to the 2011 Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings – based on a survey of 13,388 academics over 131 countries which is the largest evaluation of academic reputation to date – Oxford belongs to the elite group of six universities touted as the 'globally recognised super brands'. Oxford is one of four UK universities that belong to the Coimbra Group, one of four UK universities that belong to the League of European Research Universities, and one of three UK universities that belong to both. It is the only UK university to belong to the Europaeum group.
League table rankingsEdit
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| Independent |
Complete University Guide
Notable alumni and academicsEdit
- Main article: List of University of Oxford people
There are many notable Oxonians (as alumni of the University are known):
Twenty-six British prime ministers have attended Oxford, including William Gladstone, Herbert Asquith, Clement Attlee, Harold Macmillan, Harold Wilson, Edward Heath, Margaret Thatcher, Tony Blair and most recently David Cameron.
At least thirty other international leaders have been educated at Oxford. This number includes Harald V of Norway, Abdullah II of Jordan, three Prime Ministers of Australia (John Gorton, Malcolm Fraser and Bob Hawke), two Prime Ministers of Canada (Lester B. Pearson, and John Turner), two Prime Ministers of India (Manmohan Singh and Indira Gandhi), four Prime Ministers of Pakistan (Liaquat Ali Khan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, and Benazir Bhutto), S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike of Sri Lanka, Norman Washington Manley of Jamaica, Eric Williams (Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago), Álvaro Uribe (Colombia's former President), Abhisit Vejjajiva (Prime Minister of Thailand) and Bill Clinton (the first President of the United States to have attended Oxford; he attended as a Rhodes Scholar). Arthur Mutambara (Deputy Prime Minister of Zimbabwe ),was a Rhodes Scholar in 1991. The Burmese democracy activist and Nobel laureate, Aung San Suu Kyi, was a student of St. Hugh's College. Including Aung San Suu Kyi, forty-seven Nobel prize-winners have studied or taught at Oxford.
Oxford has also produced at least twelve saints, and twenty Archbishops of Canterbury, including the current incumbent, Rowan Williams, (who studied at Wadham College and was later a Canon Professor at Christ Church). Another religious figure was Mirza Nasir Ahmad, the third Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and Shoghi Effendi, one of the appointed leaders of the Baha'i faith. Some fifty Olympic medal-winners have academic connections with the university, including Sir Matthew Pinsent, quadruple gold-medallist rower. T. E. Lawrence was a student at Jesus College, while other illustrious students include the explorer, courtier, and man of letters, Sir Walter Raleigh, (who attended Oriel College but left without taking a degree) to the Australian media mogul, Rupert Murdoch. The founder of Methodism, John Wesley, studied at Christ Church and was elected a fellow of Lincoln College.
The long list of writers associated with Oxford includes John Fowles, Theodor Geisel, Thomas Middleton, Samuel Johnson, Robert Graves, Evelyn Waugh, Lewis Carroll, Aldous Huxley, Oscar Wilde, C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Graham Greene, V.S.Naipaul, Phillip Pullman, Joseph Heller, Vikram Seth, the poets Percy Bysshe Shelley, John Donne, A. E. Housman, W. H. Auden, T. S. Eliot, Wendy Perriam and Philip Larkin, and seven poets laureate (Thomas Warton, Henry James Pye, Robert Southey, Robert Bridges, Cecil Day-Lewis, Sir John Betjeman, and Andrew Motion).
Economists Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall, E. F. Schumacher and Amartya Sen, and philosophers, John Locke, Thomas Hobbes and Jeremy Bentham, have all spent time at Oxford, as have major scientific pioneers such as Albert Einstein and Erwin Schrödinger. Some pioneers of the scientific revolution, such as Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle, either studied at Oxford or were otherwise associated with the university.
Some notable scientists include Stephen Hawking, Richard Dawkins, Nobel prize-winner Anthony James Leggett,,Tim Berners-Lee, co-inventor of the World Wide Web, and W. S. Gosset, discoverer of the Student's t-distribution.
Actors Hugh Grant, Kate Beckinsale, Dudley Moore, Michael Palin, and Terry Jones were undergraduates at the University, as were Oscar-winner Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck and film-makers Ken Loach and Richard Curtis. Sportspeople who have attended the university include Imran Khan.
More complete information on famous senior and junior members of the University can be found in the individual college articles (an individual may be associated with two or more colleges, as an undergraduate, postgraduate, and/or member of staff).
Affiliates and other institutionsEdit
Notable organisations and institutions officially connected with the University include:
Faculties and DepartmentsEdit
Clubs and societiesEdit
- Oxford Union Society (debating society)
- Oxford University A.F.C. (association football club)
- Oxford University Amateur Boxing Club
- Oxford University Society of Bibliophiles
- Oxford University Boat Club (rowing club participating in The Boat Race)
- Oxford University Cricket Club (Cricket team whose matches are accorded First Class Status. Participates in The University Match)
- Oxford University Dancesport Club
- Oxford University Dramatic Society
- Oxford University Film Foundation
- Oxford University Invariant Society
- Oxford University Newman Society (Catholic speaker and debating society)
- Oxford University RFC (rugby club participating in the Varsity Match)
- Oxford University Scientific Society
- Oxford University Student Union
- Oxford University Conservative Association
- Oxford University Liberal Democrats
- Oxford University Labour Club
- Oxford University Ski and Snowboard Club (Governing club of the Varsity Trip)
- Oxford University Wine Society
- Stubbs Society
- Bullingdon Club
- Cherwell (Student publication)
- Isis (Student publication)
- Oxford Student Publications Limited (Student publishing house)
- The Owl Journal (Student publication)
- Journal of the Oxford University History Society (academic journal)
- Oxford University Press (world's largest university press)
- Oxide Radio (Student radio station)
- The Oxford Student (Student publication)
- The Oxonian Review of Books (Graduate student publication)
- The Triple Helix Oxford (Student publication)
- The Oxymoron (Satirical student publication)
Buildings and parksEdit
- Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford
- Oxford University Parks
- Radcliffe Camera
- Rhodes Trust, the centre of the Rhodes Scholarship
- Sheldonian Theatre
- Tom Tower
- University Church of St Mary the Virgin
- Oxford Botanic Garden and Harcourt Arboretum
There are other higher and further education institutions in Oxford, including various independent "colleges", not associated with the University. These include Oxford Brookes University; Ruskin College, Oxford – an adult education college – which, although not part of the University of Oxford, has close links with it; and the former Lady Spencer Churchill teaching college (now the Wheatley campus of Oxford Brookes).
The University of Oxford is an Educational Alliance Partner of the Meade 4M Community which supports the University's 'Project Jetwatch' program.
Oxford in literature and other mediaEdit
- Main article: University of Oxford in popular culture
Oxford University is the setting for numerous works of fiction. Oxford was mentioned in fiction as early as 1400 when Chaucer in his Canterbury Tales referred to a "Clerk [student] of Oxenford": "For him was levere have at his beddes heed/ Twenty bookes, clad in blak or reed,/ of Aristotle and his philosophie/ Than robes riche, or fithele, or gay sautrie". As of 1989, 533 Oxford-based novels had been identified, and the number continues to rise. Famous literary works range from Brideshead Revisited, by Evelyn Waugh, to the trilogy His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman, which features an alternate-reality version of the University. Sir Humphrey Appleby, GCB, KBE, MVO, MA (Oxon) attended the fictional Baillie College in Yes Minister, and The Complete Yes Minister book's introduction, dated September 2019, was written from the equally fictitious Hacker College, presumably named for Sir James (or Lady) Hacker, Minister for Administrative Affairs in Yes Minister and Prime Minister in Yes, Prime Minister, MP for Birmingham South-East.
- ↑ "A Brief History of the University". University of Oxford. http://www.ox.ac.uk/about_the_university/introducing_oxford/a_brief_history_of_the_university/index.html. Retrieved 30 October 2007.
- ↑ "Campaign for Oxford". http://www.campaign.ox.ac.uk/campaign/the_campaign/faq.html. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Facts and Figures". University of Oxford. http://www.ox.ac.uk/about_the_university/facts_and_figures/index.html. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 "Student Statistics". University of Oxford. http://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/sr/Student%20Statistics02.shtml. Retrieved 30 April 2010. Template:Dead link
- ↑ from "The brand colour – Oxford blue". http://www.ox.ac.uk/branding_toolkit/the_brand_colours/.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 "A brief history of the University – University of Oxford". www.ox.ac.uk. http://www.ox.ac.uk/about_the_university/introducing_oxford/a_brief_history_of_the_university/index.html. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- ↑ Sager, Peter (2005). Oxford and Cambridge: An Uncommon History p. 36
- ↑ "A brief history of the University". http://www.ox.ac.uk/about_the_university/introducing_oxford/a_brief_history_of_the_university/index.html.
- The first teacher known is Thibaud d'Etampes, not before 1116, for he was yet in France in 1114: Gineste, B., "Thibaud d'Étampes", in Cahiers d'Étampes-Histoire 10 (2009), pp. 43–58.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Watson, Roland; Elliott, Francis; Foster, Patrick. "The Times Good University Guide 2010". The Times (UK). http://extras.timesonline.co.uk/tol_gug/gooduniversityguide.php. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 "The Complete University Guide 2010". The Complete University Guide. http://www.thecompleteuniversityguide.co.uk/single.htm?ipg=8726.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 "The Guardian University guide 2010". The Guardian (UK). 12 May 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/table/2009/may/12/university-league-table. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- ↑ "Top 500 World Universities (1–100)". ARWU 2009. http://www.arwu.org/ARWU2009.jsp. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
- ↑ "World University Rankings". The Times Higher Education Supplement. http://www.topuniversities.com/world-university-rankings. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
- ↑ "Applying for the Rhodes Scholarships – The Rhodes Trust". rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk. http://www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk/page/applying-for-the-rhodes-scholarship. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
- ↑ "Golden opportunities". Nature. 6 July 2005. http://www.nature.com/naturejobs/2005/050707/full/nj7047-144a.html. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
- ↑ 16.00 16.01 16.02 16.03 16.04 16.05 16.06 16.07 16.08 16.09 16.10 16.11 16.12 16.13 16.14 16.15 16.16 "Famous Oxonians". University of Oxford. 30 October 2007. http://www.ox.ac.uk/about_the_university/oxford_people/famous_oxonians/. Retrieved 5 November 2007.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 Frances Lannon "Her Oxford", Times Higher Education, 30 October 2008
- ↑ "History", Lady Margaret Hall, University of Oxford
- ↑ "History", Somerville College, University of Oxford
- ↑ "History of the College", St Hugh's College, University of Oxford
- ↑ "Constitutional History", St Hilda's College, University of Oxford
- ↑ "St Anne's History", St Anne's College, University of Oxford
- ↑ Joyce S. Pedersen Book review, H-Albion, May 1996, reprinted on H-Net Review website
- ↑ 1965. – Handbook to the University of Oxford. – University of Oxford. – p.43.
- ↑ "Women at Oxford", University of Oxford
- ↑ Jenifer Hart "Women at Oxford since the Advent of Mixed Colleges", Oxford Review of Education, 15:3, 1989, p.217
- ↑ "Colleges and Halls A-Z". University of Oxford. http://www.ox.ac.uk/colleges/colleges_and_halls_az/index.html. Retrieved 4 October 2008.
- ↑ "Oxford University Archives: A history of Congregation and Convocation, 3. Nineteenth century reform". Oxford University Archives. http://www.oua.ox.ac.uk/enquiries/congandconvthree.html. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- ↑ "Oxford University Archives: A history of Congregation and Convocation, 5. The mid 20th century". Oxford University Archives. http://www.oua.ox.ac.uk/enquiries/congandconvfive.html. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
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- ↑ "Regulations on the number and length of terms". University of Oxford. http://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/examregs/03-00_REGULATIONS_ON_THE_NUMBER_AND_LENGTH_OF_TERMS.shtml. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
- ↑ Sastry, Tom; Bekhradnia, Bahram (25 September 2007). "The Academic Experience of Students in English Universities (2007 report)" (PDF). Higher Education Policy Institute. pp. footnote 14. http://www.hepi.ac.uk/downloads/33TheacademicexperienceofstudentsinEnglishuniversities2007.pdf. Retrieved 4 November 2007. "Even within Russell Group institutions, it is remarkable how consistently Oxford and Cambridge appear to require more effort of their students than other universities. On the other hand, they have fewer weeks in the academic year than other universities, so the extent to which this is so may be exaggerated by these results."
- ↑ "New investment committee at Oxford University". University of Oxford. 13 February 2007. http://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/po/news/2006-07/feb/13.shtml. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
- ↑ "Oxford Thinking". http://www.campaign.ox.ac.uk/.
- ↑ "The Campaign – University of Oxford". University of Oxford. http://www.campaign.ox.ac.uk/campaign/the_campaign/index.html. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
- ↑ , Mediaeval craftsmen (1975), p. 45
- ↑ Museum of foreign literature, science and art, vol. 23, p. 322
- ↑ "How do I choose a college? – Will I be interviewed only at my chosen college?". University of Oxford. http://www.ox.ac.uk/admissions/undergraduate_courses/colleges/how_do_i_choose_a_college/index.html. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
- ↑ "UCAS Students: Important dates for your diary". http://www.ucas.com/students/importantdates. Retrieved 23 November 2009. "15 October 2009 Last date for receipt of applications to Oxford University, University of Cambridge and courses in medicine, dentistry and veterinary science or veterinary medicine."
- ↑ "Organ Awards Information for Prsospective Candidates". Faculty of Music, University of Oxford. http://www.music.ox.ac.uk/assets/files/Chor_Org_Downloads/OrgAwards2009.pdf. Retrieved 22 March 2009. "It is possible for a candidate to enter the comparable competition at Cambridge which is scheduled at the same time of year."
- ↑ "UCAS Students FAQs: Oxford or Cambridge". http://www.ucas.com/students/applying/faqs/eligibility/faq1. Retrieved 23 November 2009. "Is it possible to apply to both Oxford University and the University of Cambridge?"
- ↑ "Open Offer Scheme". Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford. http://www.bioch.ox.ac.uk/aspsite/index.asp?pageid=462. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
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- ↑ "A Common Framework for colleges and faculties and departments". Undergraduate Admissions Office, University of Oxford. 2 April 2007. http://www.admissions.ox.ac.uk/news/common_framework.shtml. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
- ↑ "UK | Education | More state pupils head to Oxford". BBC News. 12 March 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/7939230.stm. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- ↑ "Frequently Asked Questions about Oxford Physics (February 2008)" (PDF). http://www.physics.ox.ac.uk/admissions/FAQs08.pdf. Retrieved 23 February 2008.
- ↑ St Hugh's College – Subjects accepted
- ↑ 48.0 48.1 Working with Schools and Colleges, University of Oxford Gazette, 2006. Retrieved 25 March 2007.
- ↑ "Is Oxbridge elitist?". BBC News. 31 May 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/talking_point/764767.stm. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
- ↑ "Should Oxford discriminate in favour of state school students?". Telegraph (London). 27 July 2006. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?view=BLOGDETAIL&grid=F11&blog=yourview&xml=/news/2006/07/27/ublview27.xml. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
- ↑ Letters (14 December 2010). "Our education system's great shame". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2010/dec/14/education-shame-oxbridge-schools-race. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
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- ↑ 53.0 53.1 53.2 Undergraduate Admissions Statistics: 2010 entry, retrieved 12 April 2011.
- ↑ "The Oxford Admissions Study". http://www.onsir.ox.ac.uk/index.php/research/55-projects/112-oxford-admissions-study.html.
- ↑ "Anthony Heath, FBA PhD Sociology, Cambridge (1971) Professorial Fellow and University Professor of Sociology". Nuffield College. last updated July 2008. http://www.nuffield.ox.ac.uk/sociology/Group/heath.html.
- ↑ "ORA Thesis: "Challenges to meritocracy? A study of the social mechanisms in student selection and attainment at the University of Oxford". ora.ouls.ox.ac.uk date=. http://ora.ouls.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:0e9cf555-a921-4134-baf4-ce7114795f36.
- ↑ Anna Zimdars. "Fairness and undergraduate admission: a qualitative exploration of admissions choices at the University of Oxford". informaworld.com. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a922924149~frm=titlelink.
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- ↑ Reid, Hugh (September 2004 (online edition May 2006)). "Warton, Thomas (1728–1790)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/28799. Retrieved 5 November 2007.
- ↑ Sambrook, James (2004). "Pye, Henry James (1745–1813)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/22918. Retrieved 5 November 2007.
- ↑ Carnall, Geoffrey (2004). "Southey, Robert (1774–1843)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/26056. Retrieved 5 November 2007.
- ↑ Phillips, Catherine (2004). "Bridges, Robert Seymour (1844–1930)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/32066. Retrieved 5 November 2007.
- ↑ Day-Lewis, Sean (2004). "Lewis, Cecil Day- (1904–1972)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/31014. Retrieved 5 November 2007.
- ↑ Amis, Kingsley; Loughlin-Chow, M. Clare (2004 (online edition October 2005)). "Betjeman, Sir John (1906–1984)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/30815. Retrieved 5 November 2007.
- ↑ "Andrew Motion". The Poetry Archive. 2005. http://www.poetryarchive.org/poetryarchive/singlePoet.do?poetId=212. Retrieved 5 November 2007.
- ↑ "Staff profile page: Professor Richard Dawkins". New College, Oxford. 2007. Archived from the original on 10 May 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070510045539/http://www.new.ox.ac.uk/Teaching_and_Research/Staff_Profile_Page.php?staffId=15. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
- ↑ "Anthony J. Leggett The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003 – Autobiography". Nobel Foundation. 2003. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2003/leggett-autobio.html. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
- ↑ 147.0 147.1 "A brief history". New College, Oxford. 2007. Archived from the original on 24 August 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070824150646/http://www.new.ox.ac.uk/The_College/A_Brief_History.php. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
- ↑ "Some famous alumni". Magdalen College, Oxford. 2007. http://www.magd.ox.ac.uk/history/alumni.shtml. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
- ↑ "Famous graduates". St Edmund Hall, Oxford. 2007. http://www.seh.ox.ac.uk/index.php?section=36. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
- ↑ "Spring 2005 Newsletter" (PDF). St Peter's College, Oxford. Spring 2005. http://www.spc.ox.ac.uk/uploads/SPC_Newsletter_Spring_2005.pdf. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
- ↑ Oxford in Fiction: an annotated bibliography, Judy G. Batson
- Annan, Noel, The Dons: Mentors, Eccentrics and Geniuses HarperCollins (London, 1999)
- Batson, Judy G., Oxford in Fiction, Garland (New York, 1989).
- Betjeman, John, An Oxford University Chest, Miles (London, 1938).
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- De-la-Noy, Michael, Exploring Oxford, Headline (London, 1991).
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