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T S Eliot Simon Fieldhouse

T.S. Eliot by Simon Fieldhouse (Simonfieldhouse at en.wikipedia). Licensed under Creative Commons. Courtesy Wikimedia Commons.

T.S. Eliot
T.S. Eliot, 1923
T.S. Eliot in 1923 by Lady Ottoline Morrell
Occupation Poet, dramatist, literary critic
Citizenship American by birth; British from 1927
Writing period 1905-1965
Literary movement Modernism
Notable work(s) The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock (1915), The Waste Land (1922), Four Quartets (1944)
Notable award(s) Nobel Prize for Literature (1948), Order of Merit (1948)
Spouse(s) Vivienne Haigh-Wood (Vivien) (1915–1947); Esmé Valerie Fletcher (1957–1965)
Children none
Signature 128px

Thomas Stearns Eliot OM (September 26, 1888 - January 4, 1965) was an American-born English poet, playwright, and literary critic, arguably the most important English-language poet of the 20th century.[3] The poem that made his name, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock – begun in 1910 and published in Chicago in 1915 – is regarded as a masterpiece of modernist poetry in English. He followed this with what have become some of the best-known poems in the English language, including Gerontion (1920), The Waste Land (1922), The Hollow Men (1925), Ash Wednesday (1930), and Four Quartets (1945).[4] He is also known for his seven plays, particularly Murder in the Cathedral (1935). He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948.[5]

LifeEdit

OverviewEdit

Born in St. Louis, Missouri, Eliot went east for college and was educated at Harvard University. After graduation, he studied philosophy at the Sorbonne for a year, then won a scholarship to Merton College, Oxford in 1914. An expatriate, he became a British citizen at the age of 39. "[M]y poetry has obviously more in common with my distinguished contemporaries in America than with anything written in my generation in England," he said of his nationality and its role in his work. "It wouldn't be what it is, and I imagine it wouldn't be so good ... if I'd been born in England, and it wouldn't be what it is if I'd stayed in America. It's a combination of things. But in its sources, in its emotional springs, it comes from America." Eliot renounced his citizenship to the United States and said: "My mind may be American but my heart is British."[6]

Youth and educationEdit

Eliot was born into the Eliot family, a bourgeois family[7] originally from New England]], who had moved to St. Louis, Missouri.[4] His father, Henry Ware Eliot (1843–1919), was a successful businessman, president and treasurer of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company in St. Louis. Eliot credits his hometown with seeding his literary vision: "It is self-evident that St. Louis affected me more deeply than any other environment has ever done. I feel that there is something in having passed one's childhood beside the big river [Mississippi], which is incommunicable to those people who have not. I consider myself fortunate to have been born here, rather than in Boston, or New York, or London."[8] His mother, Charlotte Champe Stearns (1843–1929), wrote poetry and was a social worker, a new profession in the early 20th century. Eliot was the last of six surviving children; his parents were both 44 years old when he was born. His four sisters were between 11 and 19 years older; his brother was eight years older. Known to family and friends as Tom, he was the namesake of his maternal grandfather Thomas Stearns.

From 1898 to 1905, Eliot attended Smith Academy, where his studies included Latin, Ancient Greek, French, and German. He began to write poetry when he was 14 under the influence of Edward Fitzgerald's Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, a translation of the poetry of Omar Khayyam. He said the results were gloomy and despairing, and he destroyed them. His oldest surviving poem, an untitled lyric, dates from January 1905. The first poem that he showed anyone, "A Fable For Feasters," was written as a school exercise when he was 15, and was published in the Smith Academy Record, and later in The Harvard Advocate, Harvard University's student magazine.[9] He also published three short stories in 1905, including "The Man Who Was King", which reflects his exploration of Igorot Village while visiting the 1904 World's Fair of St. Louis.

After graduation, Eliot attended Milton Academy in Massachusetts for a preparatory year, where he met Scofield Thayer, who would later publish The Waste Land. He studied philosophy at Harvard from 1906 to 1909, earning his bachelor's degree after three years, instead of the usual four.[4] Frank Kermode writes that the most important moment of Eliot's undergraduate career was in 1908, when he discovered Arthur Symons's The Symbolist Movement in Literature (1899). This introduced him to Jules Laforgue, Arthur Rimbaud, and Paul Verlaine. Without Verlaine, Eliot wrote, he might never have heard of Tristan Corbière and his book Les amours jaunes, a work that affected the course of Eliot's life.[10] The Harvard Advocate published some of his poems, and he became lifelong friends with Conrad Aiken, the American novelist.

Eliot1910ys

Eliot in 1910. Courtesy The Eliot Project.

After working as a philosophy assistant at Harvard 1909-1910, Eliot moved to Paris, where from 1910–1911, he studied philosophy at the Sorbonne. He attended lectures by Henri Bergson and read poetry with Alain-Fournier.[4][10] From 1911–1914, he was back at Harvard studying Indian philosophy and Sanskrit.[4][11] Eliot was awarded a scholarship to Merton College, Oxford in 1914. He first visited Marburg, Germany, where he planned to take a summer program, but when the First World War broke out, he went to Oxford instead. At the time, so many American students attended Merton that the Junior Common Room proposed a motion "that this society abhors the Americanization of Oxford"; it was defeated by two votes after Eliot reminded the students how much they owed American culture.[12]

Eliot did not settle at Merton, and left after a year. He wrote to Conrad Aiken on New Year's Eve 1914: "I hate university towns and university people, who are the same everywhere, with pregnant wives, sprawling children, many books and hideous pictures on the walls ... Oxford is very pretty, but I don't like to be dead."[12] By 1916, he had completed a PhD dissertation for Harvard on Knowledge and Experience in the Philosophy of F. H. Bradley,[13] but he failed to return for the viva voce exam.[4]

MarriageEdit

File:Vivienne Haigh-Wood.jpg

In a letter to Aiken late in December 1914, Eliot, aged 26, wrote, "I am very dependent upon women (I mean female society)."[14] Less than four months later, Thayer introduced Eliot to Vivienne Haigh-Wood, a Cambridge governess. They were married at Hampstead Register Office on June 26, 1915.[15]

After a short visit alone to his family in the United States, Eliot returned to London and took several teaching jobs, such as lecturing at Birkbeck College, University of London. The philosopher Bertrand Russell took an interest in Vivienne while the newlyweds stayed in his flat. Some scholars have suggested that she and Russell had an affair, but the allegations were never confirmed.[16] In a private paper written in his sixties, Eliot confessed: "I came to persuade myself that I was in love with Vivienne simply because I wanted to burn my boats and commit myself to staying in England. And she persuaded herself (also under the influence of [Ezra] Pound) that she would save the poet by keeping him in England. To her, the marriage brought no happiness. To me, it brought the state of mind out of which came The Waste Land."[17] (Their relationship was the subject of a 1984 play Tom and Viv, which in 1994 was adapted as a film.)

Teaching, Lloyds, Faber and FaberEdit

File:TSEliotFaberHouse (cropped).jpg

After leaving Merton, Eliot worked as a schoolteacher, most notably at Highgate School, a private school in London, where he taught French and Latin[4]—his students included the young John Betjeman. Later he taught at the Royal Grammar School, High Wycombe, a state school in Buckinghamshire. To earn extra money, he wrote book reviews and lectured at evening extension courses. In 1917, he took a position at Lloyds Bank in London, working on foreign accounts. On a trip to Paris in August 1920, he met the writer James Joyce and the artist Wyndham Lewis. Eliot said he found Joyce arrogant—Joyce doubted Eliot's ability as a poet at the time—but the two soon became friends, with Eliot's visiting Joyce whenever he was in Paris.[18]

In 1925, Eliot left Lloyds to join the publishing firm Faber and Gwyer, later Faber and Faber, where he remained for the rest of his career, eventually becoming a director. Wyndham Lewis and Eliot became close friends, a friendship leading to Lewis's well-known painting of Eliot in 1938.

Conversion to Anglicanism and British citizenshipEdit

On June 29, 1927 Eliot converted to Anglicanism from Unitarianism, and in November that year he took British citizenship. He became a warden of his parish church, Saint Stephen's, Gloucester Road, London,[19] and a life member of the Society of King Charles the Martyr.[20] He specifically identified as Anglo-Catholic, proclaiming himself "classicist in literature, royalist in politics, and anglo-catholic [sic] in religion."[21][22] About thirty years later Eliot commented on his religious views that he combined "a Catholic cast of mind, a Calvinist heritage, and a Puritanical temperament."[23]

Separation and remarriageEdit

By 1932, Eliot had been contemplating a separation from his wife for some time. When Harvard offered him the Charles Eliot Norton professorship for the 1932-1933 academic year, he accepted and left Vivienne in England. Upon his return, he arranged for a formal separation from her, avoiding all but one meeting with her between his leaving for America in 1932 and her death in 1947. Vivienne was committed to the Northumberland House mental hospital, Stoke Newington, in 1938, and remained there until she died. Although Eliot was still legally her husband, he never visited her.[24]

From 1946 to 1957, Eliot shared a flat with his friend John Davy Hayward, who gathered and archived Eliot's papers, styling himself "Keeper of the Eliot Archive."[25] Hayward also collected Eliot's pre-Prufrock verse, commercially published after Eliot's death as Poems Written in Early Youth. When Eliot and Hayward separated their household in 1957, Hayward retained his collection of Eliot's papers, which he bequeathed to King's College, Cambridge in 1965.

On January 10, 1957, Eliot at the age of 68 married Esmé Valerie Fletcher, who was 32. In contrast to his first marriage, Eliot knew Fletcher well, as she had been his secretary at Faber and Faber since August 1949. They kept their wedding secret; the ceremony was held in a church at 6.15 a.m. with virtually no one in attendance other than his wife's parents. Since Eliot's death, Valerie has dedicated her time to preserving his legacy; she has edited and annotated The Letters of T. S. Eliot and a facsimile of the draft of The Waste Land. In the early 1960s, by then in failing health, Eliot worked as an editor for the Wesleyan University Press, seeking new poets in Europe for publication.[26]

Death and honoursEdit

Eliot died of emphysema in London on January 4, 1965. For many years he had had health problems caused by his heavy smoking, and had often been laid low with bronchitis or tachycardia. He was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium. In accordance with Eliot's wishes, his ashes were taken to St Michael's Church in East Coker, the village from which his ancestors had emigrated to America.

  • A wall plaque commemorates him with a quotation from his poem "East Coker": "In my beginning is my end. In my end is my beginning."
  • In 1967, on the second anniversary of his death, Eliot was commemorated by the installation of a large stone in the floor of Poets' Corner in London's Westminster Abbey. The stone, cut by designer Reynolds Stone, is inscribed with his life dates, his Order of Merit, and a quotation from his poem "Little Gidding": "the communication / Of the dead is tongued with fire beyond / the language of the living."[27]

WritingEdit

PoetryEdit

For a poet of his stature, Eliot produced a relatively small amount of poetry and he was aware of this early in his career. He wrote to J.H. Woods, one of his former Harvard professors, "My reputation in London is built upon one small volume of verse, and is kept up by printing two or three more poems in a year. The only thing that matters is that these should be perfect in their kind, so that each should be an event."[28]

Typically, Eliot first published his poems individually in periodicals or in small books or pamphlets, and then collected them in books. His first collection was Prufrock and Other Observations (1917). In 1920, he published more poems in Ara Vos Prec (London) and Poems: 1920 (New York). These had the same poems (in a different order) except that "Ode" in the British edition was replaced with "Hysteria" in the American edition. In 1925, he collected The Waste Land and the poems in Prufrock and Poems into one volume and added The Hollow Men to form Poems: 1909–1925. From then on, he updated this work as Collected Poems. Exceptions are Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats (1939), a collection of light verse; Poems Written in Early Youth, posthumously published in 1967 and consisting mainly of poems published 1907–1910 in The Harvard Advocate,[29] and Inventions of the March Hare: Poems 1909–1917, material Eliot never intended to have published, which appeared posthumously in 1997.

The Love Song of J. Alfred PrufrockEdit

Main article: The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

In 1915 Ezra Pound, overseas editor of Poetry magazine, recommended to Harriet Monroe, the magazine's founder, that she publish "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock". Although the character Prufrock seems to be middle-aged, Eliot wrote most of the poem when he was only 22. Its now-famous opening lines, comparing the evening sky to "a patient etherised upon a table," were considered shocking and offensive, especially at a time when Georgian Poetry was hailed for its derivations of the 19th century Romantic Poets. The poem follows the conscious experience of a man, Prufrock (relayed in the "stream of consciousness" form characteristic of the Modernists), lamenting his physical and intellectual inertia, the lost opportunities in his life and lack of spiritual progress, with the recurrent theme of carnal love unattained. Critical opinion is divided as to whether the narrator leaves his residence during the course of the narration. The locations described can be interpreted either as actual physical experiences, mental recollections, or as symbolic images from the sub-conscious mind, as, for example, in the refrain "In the room the women come and go." The poem's structure was heavily influenced by Eliot's extensive reading of Dante Alighieri, in the Italian, and refers to a number of literary works, including Hamlet and those of the French Symbolists.

Its reception in London can be gauged from an unsigned review in the Times Literary Supplement on June 21, 1917: "The fact that these things occurred to the mind of Mr Eliot is surely of the very smallest importance to anyone, even to himself. They certainly have no relation to poetry…"[30]

The Waste LandEdit

Main article: The Waste Land

In October 1922 Eliot published The Waste Land in The Criterion. Eliot's dedication to il miglior fabbro ("the better craftsman") refers to Ezra Pound's significant hand in editing and reshaping the poem from a longer Eliot manuscript to the shortened version that appears in publication.[31] It was composed during a period of personal difficulty for Eliot—his marriage was failing, and both he and Vivienne were suffering from nervous disorders. The poem is often read as a representation of the disillusionment of the post-war generation. That year Eliot lived in Lausanne, Switzerland to take a treatment and to convalesce from a break-down. There he wrote the final section, "What the Thunder Said," which contains frequent references to mountains.[32] Before the poem's publication as a book in December 1922, Eliot distanced himself from its vision of despair. On November 15, 1922, he wrote to Richard Aldington, saying, "As for The Waste Land, that is a thing of the past so far as I am concerned and I am now feeling toward a new form and style." The poem is known for its obscure nature—its slippage between satire and prophecy; its abrupt changes of speaker, location, and time.(Citation needed) Despite this, it has become a touchstone of modern literature, a poetic counterpart to a novel published in the same year, James Joyce's Ulysses. Among its best-known phrases are "April is the cruellest month", "I will show you fear in a handful of dust"; and "Shantih shantih shantih," the Sanskrit mantra that ends the poem.

The Hollow MenEdit

Main article: The Hollow Men

The Hollow Men appeared in 1925. For the critic Edmund Wilson, it marked "the nadir of the phase of despair and desolation given such effective expression in The Waste Land."[33] It is Eliot's major poem of the late twenties. Similar to other work, its themes are overlapping and fragmentary: post-war Europe under the Treaty of Versailles (which Eliot despised); the difficulty of hope and religious conversion; and Eliot's failed marriage.[34]

Allen Tate perceived a shift in Eliot's method, writing that, "The mythologies disappear altogether in The Hollow Men." This is a striking claim for a poem as indebted to Dante as anything else in Eliot’s early work, to say little of the modern English mythology—the "Old Guy Fawkes" of the Gunpowder Plot—or the colonial and agrarian mythos of Joseph Conrad and James George Frazer, which, at least for reasons of textual history, echo in The Waste Land.[35] The "continuous parallel between contemporaneity and antiquity" that is so characteristic of his mythical method remained in fine form.[36] The Hollow Men contains some of Eliot's most famous lines(Citation needed), notably its conclusion:

          This is the way the world ends
          This is the way the world ends
          This is the way the world ends
          Not with a bang but a whimper.

Ash WednesdayEdit

Main article: Ash Wednesday by T.S. Eliot

Ash Wednesday is the first long poem written by Eliot after his 1927 conversion to Anglicanism. Published in 1930, it deals with the struggle that ensues when one who has lacked faith acquires it. Sometimes referred to as Eliot's "conversion poem," it is richly but ambiguously allusive, and deals with the aspiration to move from spiritual barrenness to hope for human salvation. The style is different from the poetry that predates his conversion. Ash Wednesday and the poems that followed had a more casual, melodic, and contemplative method.(Citation needed)

Many critics were particularly enthusiastic about it. Edwin Muir maintained that it is one of the most moving poems Eliot wrote, and perhaps the "most perfect,"[37] though it was not well-received by everyone. The poem's groundwork of orthodox Christianity discomfited many of the more secular literati.[4]

Old Possum's Book of Practical CatsEdit

Main article: Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats

In 1930, Eliot published a book of light verse, Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats ("Old Possum" was Ezra Pound's nickname for him). This first edition had an illustration of the author on the cover. In 1954, the composer Alan Rawsthorne set six of the poems for speaker and orchestra, in a work entitled Practical Cats. After Eliot's death, the book was adapted as the basis of the musical, Cats, by Andrew Lloyd Webber, first produced in London's West End in 1981 and opening on Broadway the following year.

Four QuartetsEdit

Main article: Four Quartets

Eliot regarded Four Quartets as his masterpiece, and it is the work that led to his being awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.[4] It consists of four long poems, each first published separately: Burnt Norton (1936), East Coker (1940), The Dry Salvages (1941) and Little Gidding (1942). Each has five sections. Although they resist easy characterization, each begins with a rumination on the geographical location of its title, and each meditates on the nature of time in some important respect—theological, historical, physical—and its relation to the human condition. Each poem is associated with one of the four classical elements: air, earth, water, and fire.

Burnt Norton asks what it means to consider things that might have been. We see the shell of an abandoned house, and Eliot toys with the idea that all these merely possible realities are present together, invisible to us. All the possible ways people might walk across a courtyard add up to a vast dance we can't see; children who aren't there are hiding in the bushes.

Footfalls echo in the memory
Down the passage which we did not take
Towards the door we never opened
Into the rose-garden.[38]

East Coker continues the examination of time and meaning, focusing in a famous passage on the nature of language and poetry. Out of darkness, Eliot offers a solution: "I said to my soul, be still, and wait without hope".

The Dry Salvages treats the element of water, via images of river and sea. It strives to contain opposites: "... the past and future/Are conquered, and reconciled".

Little Gidding (the element of fire) is the most anthologized of the Quartets. Eliot's experiences as an air raid warden in The Blitz power the poem, and he imagines meeting Dante during the German bombing. The beginning of the Quartets ("Houses .../Are removed, destroyed") had become a violent everyday experience; this creates an animation, where for the first time he talks of Love as the driving force behind all experience. From this background, the Quartets end with an affirmation of Julian of Norwich: "all shall be well and/All manner of thing shall be well".

The Four Quartets cannot be understood without reference to Christian thought, traditions, and history. Eliot draws upon the theology, art, symbolism and language of such figures as Dante, and mystics St. John of the Cross and Julian of Norwich. The "deeper communion" sought in East Coker, the "hints and whispers of children, the sickness that must grow worse in order to find healing," and the exploration which inevitably leads us home all point to the pilgrim's path along the road of sanctification.

PlaysEdit

Main article: Murder in the Cathedral

With the important exception of his magnum opus Four Quartets, Eliot directed much of his creative energies after Ash Wednesday to writing plays in verse, mostly comedies or plays with redemptive endings. He was long a critic and admirer of Elizabethan and Jacobean verse drama; witness his allusions to Webster, Thomas Middleton, William Shakespeare and Thomas Kyd in The Waste Land. In a 1933 lecture he said: "Every poet would like, I fancy, to be able to think that he had some direct social utility. ... He would like to be something of a popular entertainer, and be able to think his own thoughts behind a tragic or a comic mask. He would like to convey the pleasures of poetry, not only to a larger audience, but to larger groups of people collectively; and the theatre is the best place in which to do it."[39]

After The Waste Land (1922), he wrote that he was "now feeling toward a new form and style." One project he had in mind was writing a play in verse with a jazz tempo featuring Sweeney, a character who had appeared in a number of his poems. Eliot did not finish it. He did publish separately two pieces of what he had written. The two, Fragment of a Prologue (1926) and Fragment of an Agon (1927) were published together in 1932 as Sweeney Agonistes. Although Eliot noted that this was not intended to be a one-act play, it is sometimes performed as one.[40]

A pageant play by Eliot called The Rock was performed in 1934 for the benefit of churches in the Diocese of London. Much of it was a collaborative effort; Eliot accepted credit only for the authorship of one scene and the choruses.[40] George Bell, the Bishop of Chichester, had been instrumental in connecting Eliot with producer E. Martin Browne for the production of The Rock, and later asked Eliot to write another play for the Canterbury Festival in 1935. This one, Murder in the Cathedral, concerning the death of the martyr, Thomas Becket, was more under Eliot's control. After this, he worked on commercial plays for more general audiences: The Family Reunion (1939), The Cocktail Party (1949), The Confidential Clerk, (1953) and The Elder Statesman (1958). 

Literary criticismEdit

Eliot also made significant contributions to the field of literary criticism, strongly influencing the school of New Criticism. While somewhat self-deprecating and minimizing of his work—he once said his criticism was merely a “by-product” of his “private poetry-workshop”[41]—Eliot is considered by some to be one of the greatest literary critics of the 20th century. The critic William Empson once said, "I do not know for certain how much of my own mind [Eliot] invented, let alone how much of it is a reaction against him or indeed a consequence of misreading him. He is a very penetrating influence, perhaps not unlike the east wind."[42]

In his critical essay “Tradition and the Individual Talent,” Eliot argues that art must be understood not in a vacuum, but in the context of previous pieces of art: “In a peculiar sense [an artist or poet] ... must inevitably be judged by the standards of the past.”[41] This essay was a important influence over the New Criticism by introducing the idea that the value of a work of art must be viewed in the context of the artist's previous works, a “simultaneous order” of works (i.e. "tradition"). Eliot himself employed this concept on many of his works, especially on his long-poem The Waste Land.[43]

Also important to New Criticism was the idea — as articulated in Eliot’s essay "Hamlet and His Problems[44] — of an “objective correlative,” which posits a connection among the words of the text and events, states of mind, and experiences. This notion concedes that a poem means what it says, but suggests that there can be a non-subjective judgment based on different readers’ different — but perhaps corollary — interpretations of a work.

More generally, New Critics took a cue from Eliot in regard to his “‘classical’ ideals and his religious thought; his attention to the poetry and drama of the early seventeenth century; his deprecation of the Romantics, especially Shelley; his proposition that good poems constitute ‘not a turning loose of emotion but an escape from emotion'; and his insistence that ‘poets…at present must be difficult.’”[45]

Eliot’s essays were a major factor in the revival of interest in the metaphysical poets. Eliot particularly praised the metaphysical poets' ability to show experience as both psychological and sensual, while at the same time infusing this portrayal with—in Eliot's view—wit and uniqueness. Eliot's essay "The Metaphysical Poets," along with giving new significance and attention to metaphysical poetry, introduced his now well-known definition of "unified sensibility,"[46] which is considered by some to mean the same thing as the term "metaphysical."[47]

His 1922 poem The Waste Land[48]also can be better understood in light of his work as a critic. He had argued that a poet must write “programmatic criticism"; that is, a poet should write to advance his own interests rather than to advance “historical scholarship". Viewed from Eliot's critical lens, The Waste Land likely shows his personal despair about World War I rather than an objective historical understanding of it.[49]

In 1946 Eliot was a member of a group otherwise composed of senior clergy which produced a report entitled "Catholicity" published in 1947 as a contribution to the process which resulted in the Church of England's Report on Doctrine (1948).

In 1958, the Archbishop of Canterbury appointed Eliot to a commission that produced The Revised Psalter (1963). A harsh critic of Eliot, C.S. Lewis, was also a member of the commission, where their antagonism turned into a friendship.[50]

Critical receptionEdit

Responses to his poetryEdit

The initial critical response to Eliot's poetry, particularly "The Waste Land," was mixed. Some critics, like Edmund Wilson, Conrad Aiken, and Gilbert Seldes thought it was the best poetry being written in the English language while others thought it was esoteric and wilfully difficult. Edmund Wilson, being one of the critics who praised Eliot, called him "one of our only authentic poets."[51] Nevertheless, it should be noted that Wilson also pointed out some of Eliot's weaknesses as a poet. In regard to "The Waste Land," Wilson admits its flaws ("its lack of structural unity"), but concluded, "I doubt whether there is a single other poem of equal length by a contemporary American which displays so high and so varied a mastery of English verse." [52]

Other critics, like Charles Powell, were decidedly negative in their criticism of Eliot, calling his poems incomprehensible. [53] And the writers of Time magazine were similarly baffled by a challenging poem like "The Waste Land".[54] Of course, there were some critics, like John Crowe Ransom, who wrote mostly negative criticisms of Eliot's work but who also had some positive things to say. For instance, though Ransom negatively criticised "The Waste Land" for its "extreme disconnection," Ransom was not completely condemnatory of Eliot's work (like Powell) and admitted that Eliot was a talented poet.[55]

Addressing some of the common criticisms directed against "The Waste Land" at the time, Gilbert Seldes stated, "It seems at first sight [to be] remarkably disconnected [and] confused ... [however] a closer view of the poem does more than illuminate the difficulties; it reveals the hidden form of the work, [and] indicates how each thing falls into place." [56]

Allegations of anti-SemitismEdit

The depiction of Jews in some of Eliot's poems has led several critics to accuse him of anti-Semitism. This case has been presented most forcefully in a 1996 study by Anthony Julius, T.S. Eliot, Anti-Semitism, and Literary Form.[57][58] In "Gerontion", Eliot writes, in the voice of the poem's elderly narrator, "And the Jew squats on the window sill, the owner [of my building],/ Spawned in some estaminet of Antwerp."[59] Another well-known example appears in the poem, "Burbank with a Baedeker: Bleistein with a Cigar." In this poem, Eliot wrote, "The rats are underneath the piles./ The Jew is underneath the lot./ Money in furs." [60] Interpreting the line as an indirect comparison of Jews to rats, Julius writes, "The anti-Semitism is unmistakable. It reaches out like a clear signal to the reader." Julius's viewpoint has been supported by literary critics such as Christopher Ricks, George Steiner, and James Fenton.[61]

In a series of lectures delivered at the University of Virginia in 1933, published under the title After Strange Gods: A Primer of Modern Heresy (1934), Eliot wrote of societal tradition and coherence: "What is still more important [than cultural homogeneity] is unity of religious background, and reasons of race and religion combine to make any large number of free-thinking Jews undesirable."[62] Eliot never re-published this book nor the lecture.[61]

Craig Raine, in his books In Defence of T.S. Eliot (2001) and T. S. Eliot (2006), has sought to defend Eliot from the charge of anti-Semitism. Reviewing Raine's 2006 book, Paul Dean stated that he was not convinced by Raine's argument though he concluded, "Ultimately, as both Raine and, to do him justice, Julius insist, however much Eliot may have been compromised as a person, as we all are in our several ways, his greatness as a poet remains."[61]

RecognitionEdit

T.S. Eliot (8386703881)

T.S. Eliot commemorative plaque in South Kensington, London. Photo by Simon Harriyott. Courtesy Flickr Commons.

A memorial tablet to Eliot was unveiled by his widow on 4 January 1967 in Poets' Corner, Westminster Abbey.[63]

AwardsEdit

PublicationsEdit

PoetryEdit

  • Prufrock, and Other Observations. London: The Egoist, 1917.
  • Poems by T.S. Eliot. Hogarth, 1919.
  • Ara Vus Prec (includes Poems by T. S. Eliot, above, London: Ovid Press , 1920
    • , published in U.S. as Poems. New York: Knopf, 1920.
  • The Waste Land (first published in Criterion, first issue, October, 1922). New York: Boni & Liveright, 1922. audio
  • Poems, 1909-1925 (contains all works cited above and "The Hollow Men"; earlier drafts and sections of "The Hollow Men" appeared in Chapbook, Commerce, Criterion, and Dial, 1924-25). London: Faber, 1925.
  • Journey of the Magi (one of the "Ariel Poems"), London: Faber, 1927.
  • Animula (one of the "Ariel Poems"). London: Faber, 1929.
  • Ash-Wednesday (first 3 parts originally published in French, American, and English magazines, respectively; Part 2, first published as Salutation in Saturday Review of Literature, was intended as another of the "Ariel Poems" and as a complement to Journey of the Magi the publisher also intended to issue this part separately as a Christmas card). Putnam, 1930.
  • Marina (one of the "Ariel Poems"), London: Faber, 1930.
  • Triumphal March. London: Faber, 1931.
  • The Waste Land, and Other Poems. Harcourt, 1934.
  • Words for Music. [Bryn Mawr], 1935.
  • Collected Poems, 1909-1935. Harcourt, 1936.
  • A Song for Simeon (written in the 1920 's; one of the "Ariel Poems"). London: Faber, 1938.
  • Noctes Binanianae(with Geoffrey Faber, Frank Morley, and John Hayward - limited edition of 25 copies for the authors and friends; never reprinted). London: privately printed, 1939.
  • Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats. Harcourt, 1939.
  • East Coker. London: Faber, 1940.
  • Burnt Norton. London: Faber, 1941.
  • The Dry Salvages. London: Faber, 1941.
  • Later Poems, 1925-1935. London: Faber 1941.
  • Little Gidding. London: Faber, 1942.
  • Four Quartets (Burnt Norton, East Coker, The Dry Salvages, & Little Gidding). Harcourt, 1943.
  • A Practical Possum. Harvard Printing Office, 1947.
  • Selected Poems. Penguin, 1948, Harcourt, 1967.
  • The Undergraduate Poems. Harvard Advocate (unauthorized reprint of poems originally published in the Advocate), 1949.
  • Poems Written in Early Youth. Stockholm: privately printed by Bonniers, 1950
    • new edition (prepared by Valerie Eliot and John Hayward). New York: Farrar, Straus, 1967.
  • The Cultivation of Christmas Trees (one of the "Ariel Poems"). London: Faber, 1954; New York: Farrar, Straus, 1956.
  • Collected Poems, 1909-1962. Harcourt, 1963.
  • The Waste Land: A facsimile of the original drafts, including the annotations of Ezra Pound. (edited and with introduction by Valerie Eliot). Harcourt, 1971.
  • Inventions of the March Hare: Poems, 1909-1917 (edited by Christopher Ricks). Harcourt, 1997.

PlaysEdit

  • Fragment of a Prologue. [London], 1926.
  • Fragment of the Agon. [London], 1927.
  • Sweeney Agonistes: Fragments of an Aristophanic Melodrama (provisionally titled Wanna Go Home, Baby?during composition; consists of two fragments cited above; first produced in New York at Cherry Lane Theater, March 2, 1952), Faber, 1932.
  • The Rock: A Pageant Play (a revue with scenario by E. Martin Browne and music by Martin Shaw; first produced in London at Sadler Wells Theatre, May 9, 1934). Faber, 1934.
  • Murder in the Cathedral (provisionally titled Fear in the Way during composition; first produced in an abbreviated form for the Canterbury Festival in the Chapter House of Canterbury Cathedral, June, 1935; produced in London at Mercury Theatre, November 1, 1935; first produced in America at Yale University, January, 1936; first produced in New York at Manhattan Theater, March 20, 1936). Harcourt, 1935.
  • The Family Reunion (often cited as a rewriting of the unfinished Sweeney Agonistes; first produced in London at Westminster Theatre, March 21, 1939; produced in New York at Phoenix Theater, October 20, 1958). Harcourt, 1939.
  • The Cocktail Party (provisionally titled One-Eyed Riley during composition; first produced for the Edinburgh Festival, Scotland, August, 1949; produced in New York at Henry Miller's Theater, January 21, 1950). Harcourt, 1950.
  • The Confidential Clerk (first produced for the Edinburgh Festival, August, 1953; produced in London at Lyric Theatre, September 16, 1953; produced in New York at Morosco Theater, February 11, 1954). Harcourt, 1954.
  • The Elder Statesman (first produced for the Edinburgh Festival, August, 1958; produced in London at Cambridge Theatre, September 25, 1958). Farrar, Straus, 1959.
  • Collected Plays. Faber, 1962.

Non-fictionEdit

  • Ezra Pound: His metric and poetry (anonymous). Knopf, 1917.
  • The Sacred Wood: Essays on poetry and criticism. Methuen, 1920, 7th edition, 1950, Barnes & Noble, 1960.
  • Homage to John Dryden (three essays on 17th-century poetry). London: L. and V. Woolf at Hogarth Press, 1924; Doubleday, 1928.
  • Shakespeare and the Stoicism of Seneca (an address). Oxford University Press , for the Shakespeare Association, 1927.
  • For Lancelot Andrewes: Essays on Style and Order. Faber, 1928, Doubleday, 1929.
  • Thoughts After Lambeth (a criticism of the Report of the Lambeth Conference, 1930). Faber, 1931.
  • Charles Whibley: A memoir. Oxford University Press, for the English Association, 1931.
  • Selected Essays, 1917-1932. Harcourt, 1932; 2nd edition published as Selected Essays, Harcourt, 1950; 3rd edition, Faber, 1951.
  • John Dryden: The poet, the dramatist, the critic (3 essays). New York: T. & Elsa Holiday, 1932.
  • The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism: Studies in the relation of criticism to poetry in England (the Charles Eliot Norton lectures). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1933. 2nd edition, Faber, 1964.
  • Elizabethan Essays (includes Shakespeare and the Stoicism of Seneca). Faber, 1934. Haskell House, 1964.
  • After Strange Gods: A Primer of Modern Heresy (the Page-Barbour lectures). Harcourt, 1934.
  • Essays, Ancient and Modern (first published in part as For Lancelot Andrewes). Harcourt, 1936.
  • The Idea of a Christian Society (three lectures). Faber, 1939, Harcourt, 1940.
  • Christianity and Culture (contains "The Idea of a Christian Society" and "Notes Towards the Definition of Culture"). Harcourt, 1940.
  • Points of View (selected criticism) (edited by John Hayward). Faber, 1941.
  • The Classics and the Man of Letters (an address). Oxford University Press, 1942.
  • The Music of Poetry (lecture). Glasgow: Jackson, 1942.
  • Reunion by Destruction: Reflections on a Scheme for Church Union in South India (an address). London: Pax House, 1943.
  • What Is a Classic? (an address), Faber, 1945.
  • On Poetry. [Concord], 1947.
  • A Sermon. [Cambridge], 1948.
  • From Poe to Valery (first published in Hudson Review, 1948), privately printed for friends by Harcourt, 1948.
  • Milton (lecture). London: Cumberlege, 1948.
  • Notes Towards the Definition of Culture (seven essays). Harcourt, 1949.
  • The Aims of Poetic Drama. Galleon, 1949.
  • The Value and Use of Cathedrals in England Today. [Chichester], 195?.
  • Poetry and Drama (the Theodore Spencer lecture). Harvard University Press, 1951.
  • American Literature and the American Language (an address and an appendix entitled The Eliot Family and St. Louis, the latter prepared by the English Department at Washington University). Washington University Press, 1953.
  • The Three Voices of Poetry (lecture), Cambridge University Press, for the National Book League, 1953, Cambridge University Press (New York), 1954.
  • Selected Prose (edited by John Hayward). Penguin, 1953.
  • Religious Drama. New York: House of Books, 1954.
  • The Literature of Politics (lecture, foreword by Sir Anthony Eden). Conservative Political Centre, 1955.
  • The Frontiers of Criticism (lecture). University of Minnesota, 1956.
  • Essays on Elizabethan Drama (contains nine of the eleven essays originally published as Elizabethan Essays). Harcourt, 1956.
  • On Poetry and Poets (essays). Farrar, Straus, 1957.
  • William Collin Brooks (an address). London: The Statist, 1959.
  • Geoffrey Faber, 1889-1961. Faber, 1961.
  • George Herbert. Longmans, Green, for the British Council and the National Book League, 1962.
  • Elizabethan Dramatists. Faber, 1963.
  • Knowledge and Experience in the Philosophy of F.H. Bradley (doctoral dissertation). Farrar, Straus, 1964.
  • To Criticize the Critic, and Other Writings (contains From Poe to Valery; American Literature and the American Language;The Literature of Politics; The Classics and the Man of Letters; Ezra Pound: His Metric and Poetry; and new essays). Farrar, Straus, 1965.
  • The Varieties of Metaphysical Poetry: The Clark Lectures at Trinity College, Cambridge, 1926, and the Turnbull Lectures at the Johns Hopkins University, 1933. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1994.

Collected editionsEdit

  • The Complete Poems and Plays, 1909-1950.Harcourt, 1952.
  • Eliot: Poems and prose (edited by Peter Washington). New York: Random House (Everyman's Library Pocket Poets), 1998.

LettersEdit

  • The Letters of T.S. Eliot, Volume 1: 1898-1922 (edited by Valerie Eliot). Harcourt, 1988.
  • The Letters of T.S. Eliot, Volume 2: 1923-1925 (edited by Valerie Eliot and Hugh Haughton). Harcourt, 2009.[64]
  • The Letters of T.S. Eliot, Volume 3: 1926-1927 (edited by Valerie Eliot and John Haffenden). Faber & Faber, 2012.[65]


Except where noted, bibliographical informatin courtesy the Poetry Foundation.[66]

Poems by T.S. EliotEdit

Essays by T.S. EliotEdit

See alsoEdit

 

ReferencesEdit

  • Alldritt, Keith. Eliot's Four Quartets: Poetry as Chamber Music. Woburn Press, 1978.
  • Ali, Ahmed. Mr. Eliot's Penny World of Dreams: An Essay in the Interpretation of T.S. Eliot's Poetry, Published for the Lucknow University by New Book Co., Bombay, P.S. King & Staples Ltd., Westminster, London, 1942, pages 138.
  • Lal, P. (Editor), T. S. Eliot: Homage from India: A Commemoration Volume of 55 Essays & Elegies, Writer's Workshop Calcutta, 1965.
  • Forster, E. M. Essay on T. S. Eliot, in Life and Letters, June 1929.
  • Harding, W. D. T. S. Eliot, 1925-1935, Scrutiny, September 1936: A Review.
  • Brown, Alec. The Lyrical Impulse in Eliot's Poetry, Scrutinies vol. 2.
  • Ackroyd, Peter. T. S. Eliot: A Life. (1984)
  • Asher, Kenneth T. S. Eliot and Ideology (1995)
  • Brand, Clinton A. "The Voice of This Calling: The Enduring Legacy of T. S. Eliot," Modern Age Volume 45, Number 4; Fall 2003 online edition, conservative perspective
  • Bush, Ronald. T. S. Eliot: A Study in Character and Style. (1984)
  • Christensen, Karen. "Dear Mrs. Eliot," The Guardian Review. (29 January 2005).
  • Crawford, Robert. The Savage and the City in the Work of T. S. Eliot. (1987).
  • Dawson, J.L., P.D. Holland & D.J. McKitterick, A Concordance to 'The Complete Poems and Plays of T.S. Eliot'. Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press, 1995.
  • Gardner, Helen. The Composition of Four Quartets. (1978).
  • ---The Art of T. S. Eliot. (1949)
  • Hargrove, Nancy Duvall. Landscape as Symbol in the Poetry of T. S. Eliot. University Press of Mississippi (1978).
  • ---. T. S. Eliot's Parisian Year. University Press of Florida (2009).
  • The Letters of T. S. Eliot. Ed. by Valerie Eliot. Vol. I, 1898-1922. San Diego [etc.] 1988. Vol. 2, 1923-1925. Edited by Valerie Eliot and Hugh Haughton, London, Faber, 2009. ISBN 9780571140817
  • Gordon, Lyndall. T. S. Eliot: An Imperfect Life. (1998)
  • Julius, Anthony. T. S. Eliot, Anti-Semitism, and Literary Form. Cambridge University Press (1995)
  • Kelleter, Frank. Die Moderne und der Tod: Edgar Allan Poe–T. S. Eliot–Samuel Beckett. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang, 1998.
  • Kenner, Hugh. The Invisible Poet: T. S. Eliot. (1969)
  • ---, editor, T. S. Eliot: A Collection of Critical Essays, Prentice-Hall. (1962)
  • Kirsch, Adam. "Matthew Arnold and T. S. Eliot", The American Scholar. Vol 67, Iss 3. Summer 1998
  • Kirk, Russell Eliot and His Age: T. S, Eliot's Moral Imagination in the Twentieth Century. (Introduction by Benjamin G. Lockerd Jr.). Wilmington: Intercollegiate Studies Institute, Republication of the revised second edition, 2008.
  • Levy, William Turner and Victor Scherle. Affectionately, T. S. Eliot: The Story of a Friendship: 1947-1965. (1968).
  • Maxwell, D. E. S. The Poetry of T. S. Eliot, Routledge and Keagan Paul. (1960).
  • Matthews, T. S. Great Tom: Notes Towards the Definition of T. S. Eliot. (1973)
  • Miller, James E., Jr. T. S. Eliot. The Making of an American Poet, 1888-1922. The Pennsylvania State University Press. 2005.
  • Narita, Tatsushi, "The Young T. S. Eliot and Alien Cultures: His Philippine Interactions", The Review of English Studies. Vol 45. (1994)
  • North, Michael (ed.) The Waste Land (Norton Critical Editions). New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.
  • Quillian, William H. Hamlet and the New Poetic: James Joyce and T. S. Eliot. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press (1983).
  • Raine, Craig. T. S. Eliot. Oxford University Press (2006).
  • Ricks, Christopher.T. S. Eliot and Prejudice. (1988).
  • Robinson, Ian "The English Prophets", The Brynmill Press Ltd (2001)
  • Ronnick, Michele Valerie, "Eliot's 'The Hollow Men'", The Explicator. Vol 56, Iss 2. (1998)
  • Schuchard, Ronald. Eliot's Dark Angel: Intersections of Life and Art. (1999).
  • Seferis, George. "Introduction to T. S. Eliot" in Modernism/modernity 16:1 ([1] January 2009), 146-60.
  • Seymour-Jones, Carole. Painted Shadow: A Life of Vivienne Eliot. (2001).
  • Sencourt, Robert. T. S. Eliot: A Memoir. (1971)
  • Spender, Stephen. T. S. Eliot. (1975)
  • Sinha, Arun Kumar and Vikram, Kumar. T. S. Eliot: An Intensive Study of Selected Poems, Spectrum Books Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, (2005).
  • Spurr, Barry, Anglo-Catholic in Religion: T. S. Eliot and Christianity, The Lutterworth Press (2009)
  • Weidmann, Dirk. And I Tiresias have foresuffered all: More Than Allusions to Ovid in T.S.Eliot's The Waste Land?. In: LITERATURA 51 (3), 2009, pp.98-108.
  • Tate, Allen, editor. T. S. Eliot: The Man and His Work, First published in 1966 - republished by Penguin 1971.
</dl>

NotesEdit

  1. Hart Crane (1899-1932)
  2. Influences by Seamus Heaney, Bostonreview.net, accessed August 3, 2009.
  3. Collini, Stefan. "I cannot go on", The Guardian, November 7, 2009.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Thomas Stearns Eliot, Encyclopaedia Britannica, accessed November 7, 2009.
  5. 5.0 5.1 The Nobel Prize in Literature 1948 - T.S. Eliot Biography, Nobelprize.org
  6. Hall, Donald. "The Art of Poetry No. 1", The Paris Review, Issue 21, Spring-Summer 1959, p. 25, accessed November 7, 2009
  7. Ronald Bush, T.S. Eliot: the modernist in history, (New York, 1991), p. 72
  8. Letter to Marquis Childs quoted in St. Louis Post Dispatch (15 October 1930) and in the address "American Literature and the American Language" delivered at Washington University (9 June 1953), published in Washington University Studies, New Series: Literature and Language, no. 23 (St. Louis: Washington University Press, 1953), p. 6.
  9. Hall, Donald. The Art of Poetry No. 1, The Paris Review, Issue 21, Spring-Summer 1959, accessed November 7, 2009.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Kermode, Frank. "Introduction" to The Waste Land and Other Poems, Penguin Classics, 2003.
  11. Perl, Jeffry M. and Andrew P. Tuck. "The Hidden Advantage of Tradition: On the Significance of T. S. Eliot's Indic Studies", Philosophy East & West V. 35 No. 2, April 1985, pp. 116–131.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Seymour-Jones, Carole. Painted Shadow: The Life of Vivienne Eliot, First Wife of T. S. Eliot, Knopf Publishing Group, p. 1.
  13. For a reading of the dissertation, see Brazeal, Gregory (Fall 2007). "The Alleged Pragmatism of T.S. Eliot". Philosophy & Literature 31 (1): 248–264. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1738642. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  14. Eliot, T. S. The Letters of T. S. Eliot, Volume 1, 1898-1922. p. 75.
  15. Richardson, John, Sacred Monsters, Sacred Masters. Random House, 2001, p. 20.
  16. Seymour-Jones, Carole. Painted Shadow: A Life of Vivienne Eliot. Knopf Publishing Group, 2001, p. 17.
  17. Eliot, T. S. The Letters of T. S. Eliot, Volume 1, 1898-192, p. xvii.
  18. Ellmann, Richard. James Joyce. pp. 492–495
  19. plaque on interior wall of Saint Stephen's
  20. obituary notice in Church and King, Vol. XVII, No. 4, February 28, 1965,−− p. 3.
  21. Specific quote is "The general point of view [of the essays] may be described as classicist in literature, royalist in politics, and anglo-catholic [sic] in religion," in preface by T.S. Eliot to For Lancelot Andrewes: essays on style and order, (1929)
  22. Books: Royalist, Classicist, Anglo-Catholic, May 25, 1936, Time
  23. Eliot, T.S. (1986). On Poetry and Poets. London: Faber & Faber. p. 209. ISBN 0-571-008983-6. 
  24. Seymour-Jones, Carole. Painted Shadow: A Life of Vivienne Eliot. Constable 2001, p. 561.
  25. Gordon, Lyndall. T. S. Eliot: An Imperfect Life. Norton 1998, p. 455.
  26. Gordon, Jane. The University of Verse, The New York Times, October 16, 2005; University Press timeline, 1957
  27. http://www.tabathayeatts.com/Poets%20Corner.jpg
  28. Eliot, T.S. "Letter to J.H. Woods, April 21, 1919." The Letters of T. S. Eliot, vol. I. Valerie Eliot, ed. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1988, p. 285.
  29. "''T. S. Eliot: The Harvard Advocate Poems''. Retrieved 5 February 2007". Theworld.com. http://www.theworld.com/~raparker/exploring/tseliot/works/poems/eliot-harvard-poems.html. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  30. Waugh, Arthur. The New Poetry, Quarterly Review, October 1916, citing the Times Literary Supplement June 21, 1917, no. 805, 299; Wagner, Erica (2001) "An eruption of fury", The Guardian, letters to the editor, September 4, 2001. Wagner omits the word "very" from the quote.
  31. Miller, James H., Jr. (2005). T. S. Eliot: the making of an American poet, 1888-1922. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. pp. 387–388. ISBN 0-271-02681-2. 
  32. Wraight, John. The Swiss and the British. Michael Russell Publishing, 1987.
  33. Wilson, Edmund. "Review of Ash Wednesday," New Republic, August 20, 1930.
  34. See, for instance, the biographically oriented work of one of Eliot's editors and major critics, Ronald Schuchard.
  35. Grant, Michael (ed.). T. S. Eliot: the Critical Heritage. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982.
  36. " 'Ulysses', Order, and Myth", Selected Essays T. S. Eliot (orig 1923).
  37. Untermeyer, Louis. Modern American Poetry. Hartcourt Brace, 1950, pp. 395-396.
  38. Eliot, T.S. Burnt Norton, Tristan.icom43.net, accessed November 7, 2009.
  39. Eliot, T. S. The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism, Harvard University Press, 1933 (penultimate paragraph)
  40. 40.0 40.1 Gallup, Donald. T. S. Eliot: A Bibliography (A Revised and Extended Edition), Harcourt, Brace & World, New York, 1969.
  41. 41.0 41.1 "Tradition and the Individual Talent. Eliot, T. S. 1920. ''The Sacred Wood''". Bartleby.com. http://www.bartleby.com/200/sw4.html. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  42. quoted in Roger Kimball, "A Craving for Reality," The New Criterion Vol. 18, 1999
  43. Dirk Weidmann: And I Tiresias have foresuffered all.... In: LITERATURA 51 (3), 2009, pp.98-108.
  44. "Hamlet and His Problems. Eliot, T. S. 1920. ''The Sacred Wood''". Bartleby.com. http://www.bartleby.com/200/sw9.html. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  45. Burt, Steven and Lewin, Jennifer. "Poetry and the New Criticism." A Companion to Twentieth-Century Poetry, Neil Roberts, ed. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 2001. p. 154
  46. "Project MUSE". Muse.jhu.edu. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_modern_literature/v027/27.1baker.html. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  47. A. E. Malloch, "The Unified Sensibility and Metaphysical Poetry", College English, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Nov., 1953), pp. 95-101
  48. "Eliot, T. S. 1922. ''The Waste Land''". Bartleby.com. http://www.bartleby.com/201/1.html. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  49. "T. S. Eliot :: The Waste Land and criticism - ''Britannica Online Encyclopedia''". Britannica.com. 1965-01-04. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-2088/TS-Eliot. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  50. Spruyt, Bart Jan. "One of the enemy: C. S. Lewis on the very great evil of T. S. Eliot's work", lecture to the conference Order and Liberty in the American Tradition, July 28–August 3, 2004, Oxford University, accessed November 7, 2009.
  51. Wilson, Edmund. "The Poetry of Drouth." The Dial 73. December 1922. 611-16.
  52. Wilson, Edmund. "The Poetry of Drouth." The Dial 73. December 1922. 611-16.
  53. Powell, Charles. "So Much Waste Paper." Manchester Guardian. October 31, 1923.
  54. Time. March 3, 1923, 12.
  55. Ransom, John Crowe. "Waste Lands." New York Evening Post Literary Review. July 14, 1923. 825-26.
  56. Seldes, Gilbert. "T.S. Eliot." Nation. 6 December 1922. 614-616.
  57. Gross, John. Was T.S. Eliot a Scoundrel?, Commentary magazine, November 1996
  58. Anthony, Julius. T.S. Eliot, Anti-Semitism, and Literary Form. Cambridge University Press, 1996 ISBN 0521586739
  59. Eliot, T.S. "Gerontion." Collected Poems. Harcourt, 1963.
  60. Eliot, T.S. "Burbank with a Baedeker: Bleistein with a Cigar." Collected Poems. Harcourt, 1963.
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 Dean, Paul (April 2007). "Academimic: on Craig Raine's T.S. Eliot". The New Criterion. http://www.newcriterion.com/articles.cfm/academimic-3143. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  62. Kirk, Russell. "T. S. Eliot on Literary Morals: On T. S. Eliot's After Strange Gods", Touchstone Magazine, volume 10, issue 4, Fall 1997.
  63. Thomas Stearns Eliot, People, History, Westminster Abbey. Web, July 11, 2016.
  64. Jeremy Noel Tod, The Letters of T S Eliot: review, The Telegraph, November 6, 2009, Web, Sep. 9, 2012.
  65. The Letters of TS Eliot Volume 3: 1926-1927 edited by Valerie Eliot and John Haffenden – review, The Observer, July 1, 2012, Web, Sep. 9, 2012.
  66. T.S. Eliot 1888-1965, Poetry Foundation, Web, Mar. 29, 2012.

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