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Richard Aldington

Richard Aldington (1892-1962). Courtesy David Mixner.com.

Richard Aldington (8 July 1892 - 27 July 1962) was an English poet and prose writer.

Aldington was best known for his World War I poetry, the 1929 novel Death of a Hero, and the controversy arising from his 1955 Lawrence of Arabia: A biographical inquiry.

LifeEdit

YouthEdit

Aldington was born Edward Godfree Aldington, in Portsmouth, England, the son of a solicitor. He was educated at Dover College, and for a year at the University of London.[1] He was unable to complete his degree because of the financial circumstances of his family. He met the poet H.D. in 1911 and they married two years later.

Man of lettersEdit

His poetry was associated with the Imagist group, and his work forms almost one third of the Imagists' inaugural anthology Des Imagistes (1914). Ezra Pound had in fact coined the term imagistes for H.D. and Aldington, in 1912.[2]

At this time, he was one of the poets around the proto-Imagist T.E. Hulme; Robert Ferguson in his life of Hulme portrays Aldington as too squeamish to approve of Hulme's robust approach, particularly to women.[3] However, Aldington shared Hulme's conviction that experimentation with traditional Japanese verse forms could provide a way forward for avant-garde literature in English, and went often to the British Museum to examine Nishiki-e prints illustrating such poetry.[4]

He knew Wyndham Lewis well, also, reviewing his work in The Egoist at this time, hanging a Lewis portfolio around the room and on a similar note of tension between the domestic and the small circle of London modernists regretting having lent Lewis his razor when the latter announced with hindsight a venereal infection.[5] Going out without a hat, and an interest in Fabian socialism, were perhaps unconventional enough for him.[6]

At this time he was also an associate of Ford Madox Ford, helping him with a hack propaganda volume for a government commission in 1914 [7] and taking dictation for The Good Soldier when H.D. found it too harrowing.

In 1915, Aldington and H.D. moved within London, away from Holland Park very near Ezra Pound and Dorothy, to Hampstead, close to D.H. Lawrence and Frieda. Their relationship became strained by external romantic interests and the stillborn birth of their child.

Between 1914 and 1916 he was literary editor of The Egoist, and columnist there.[8] He was assistant editor with Leonard Compton-Rickett under Dora Marsden.[9] The gap between the Imagist and Futurist groups was defined partly by Aldington's critical disapproval of the poetry of Filippo Marinetti.[10]

World War I and aftermathEdit

He joined the army in 1916, was commissioned in the Royal Sussexs in 1917 and was wounded on the Western Front.[11] Aldington never completely recovered from his war experiences, and may have continued to suffer from the then-unrecognised phenomenon of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Aldington and H.D. attempted to mend their marriage in 1919, after the birth of her daughter by a friend of writer D.H. Lawrence, named Cecil Gray, with whom she had become involved and lived with while Aldington was at war. However, she was by this time deeply involved in a lesbian relationship with the wealthy writer Bryher, and she and Aldington formally separated, both becoming romantically involved with other people (though they did not divorce until 1938). They remained friends, however, for the rest of their lives.

Relationship with T.S. EliotEdit

Aldington helped T.S. Eliot in a practical way, by persuading Harriet Shaw Weaver to appoint Eliot as his successor at The Egoist (helped by Pound), and later in 1919 with an introduction to the editor Bruce Richmond of the Times Literary Supplement, for which he reviewed French literature.[12][13] He was on the editorial board, with Conrad Aiken, Eliot, Lewis and Aldous Huxley, of Chaman Lall's London literary quarterly Coterie published 1919-1921.[14] With Lady Ottoline Morrell, Leonard Woolf and Harry Norton he took part in Ezra Pound's scheme to 'get Eliot out of the bank' (Eliot had a job in the international department of Lloyd's, a London bank, and well-meaning friends wanted him full-time writing poetry).[15] This manoeuvre towards Bloomsbury came to little, with Eliot getting £50 and unwelcome publicity in the Liverpool Post, but gave Lytton Strachey an opening for mockery.

Aldington made an effort with A Fool I' the Forest (1924) to reply to the new style of poetry launched by The Waste Land. He was being published at the time, for example in The Chap-Book, but clearly took on too much hack work just to live. He suffered some sort of breakdown in 1925.[16] His interest in poetry waned, and he was straighforwardly jealous of Eliot's celebrity.[17]

His attitude towards Eliot shifted, from someone who would mind the Eliots' cat in his cottage (near Reading, Berkshire, in 1921), and to whom Eliot could confide his self-diagnosis of abulia.[18] Aldington became a supporter of Vivienne Eliot in the troubled marriage, and savagely satirized her husband as "Jeremy Cibber" in Stepping Heavenward (Florence 1931).[19] He was at this time living with Arabella Yorke (real given name Dorothy), a lover since Mecklenburgh Square days.[20] It was a lengthy and passionate relationship, coming to an end when he went abroad.[16][21]

Later lifeEdit

He went into self-imposed 'exile' from England in 1928.[22] He lived in Paris for years, living with Brigit Patmore, and being fascinated by Nancy Cunard whom he met in 1928. After his divorce in 1938 he married Netta, née McCullough, previously Brigit's daughter-in-law as Mrs. Michael Patmore.

Death of a Hero, published in 1929, was his literary response to the war, commended by Lawrence Durrell as 'the best war novel of the epoch'. It was written while he was living on the island of Port-Cros in Provence as a development of a manuscript from a decade before. Opening with a letter to the playwright Halcott Glover, the book takes a variable but generally satirical, cynical and critical posture, and belabours Victorian and Edwardian cant.[23] He went on to publish several works of fiction.

In 1930, he published a bawdy translation of The Decameron. In 1933, his novel titled All Men are Enemies appeared; it was a romance, as the author chose to call it, and a brighter book than Death of a Hero, even though Aldington took an anti-war stance again. In 1942, having moved to the United States with his new wife Netta Patmore, he began to write biographies. The first was one of Wellington (The Duke: Being an Account of the Life & Achievements of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, 1943). It was followed by works on D. H. Lawrence (Portrait of a Genius, But..., 1950), Robert Louis Stevenson (Portrait of a Rebel, 1957), and T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia: A Biographical Inquiry, 1955).

Aldington's biography of T. E. Lawrence caused a scandal on its publication, and an immediate backlash.[24] It made many controversial assertions. He was the first to bring to public notice the fact of Lawrence's illegitimacy. He also asserted that Lawrence was homosexual. Lawrence lived a celibate life, and none of his close friends (of whom several were homosexual) had believed him to be gay. He attacked Lawrence as a liar and a charlatan, claims which have colored Lawrence's reputation ever since. Only later were confidential government files concerning Lawrence's career released, allowing the accuracy of Lawrence's own account to be gauged. Aldington's own reputation has never fully recovered from what came to be seen as a venomous attack upon Lawrence's reputation. Many believed that Aldington's suffering in the bloodbath of Europe during World War I caused him to resent Lawrence's reputation, gained in the Middle Eastern arena.

Aldington died in France on 27 July 1962, shortly after being honoured and feted in Moscow on the occasion of his seventieth birthday and the publication of some of his novels in Russian translation. He didn't approve of the Communist "party line", though, and the Russians didn't succeed in making him endorse it.[25] His politics had in fact moved far towards the right - opinions he shared with Lawrence Durrell, a close friend since the 1950s - but he had felt shut out by the British establishment after his T.E. Lawrence book. He lived in Provence, at Montpellier and Aix-en-Provence.

WritingEdit

Aldington could write with an acid pen. The Georgian poets, who (Pound had decided) were the Imagists' sworn enemies, he devastated with the accusation of "a little trip for a little weekend to a little cottage where they wrote a little poem on a little theme". He took swipes at Harold Monro, whose Poetry Review had published him and given him reviewing work. On the other side of the balance sheet, he spent time supporting literary folk: the alcoholic Monro, and others such as F.S. Flint and Frederic Manning who needed friendship.[12][26]

Alec Waugh, who met Aldington through Harold Monro, described him as embittered by the war, and offered Douglas Goldring as comparison; but took it that he worked off his spleen in novels like The Colonel's Daughter (1931), rather than letting it poison his life.[27] His novels in fact contained thinly-veiled, disconcerting (at least to the subjects) portraits of some of his friends (Eliot, D. H. Lawrence, Pound in particular), the friendship not always surviving. Lyndall Gordon characterises the sketch of Eliot in the memoirs Life for Life's Sake (1941) as 'snide'.[28] As a young man he enjoyed being cutting about William Butler Yeats, but remained on good enough terms to visit him in later years at Rapallo.

An obituary described him as an "angry young man", and an '"angry old man to the end".[1]

RecognitionEdit

His 1946 biography, Wellington, was awarded the James Tait Black Memorial Prize.

On 11 November 1985, Aldington was among 16 Great War poets commemorated on a slate stone unveiled in Westminster Abbey's Poet's Corner.[29] The inscription on the stone is a quotation from the work of a fellow Great War poet, Wilfred Owen. It reads: "My subject is War, and the pity of War. The Poetry is in the pity."[30]

PublicationsEdit

PoetryEdit

  • Images, 1910-1915. London: Poetry Bookshop, 1915.
  • Some Imagist Poets: An anthology (by D.H. Lawrence, H.D., Amy Lowell, & Aldington). Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1915.
  • The Love of Myrrhine and Konallis, and other prose poems. Cleveland: Clerk's Press, 1917;
    • revised & expanded, Chicago: Pascal Covici, 1926.
  • Reverie: A little book of poems for H.D. Cleveland: Clerk's Press, 1917.
  • Images of War: a book of poems. Westminster, UK: Beaumont Press, 1919.
    • revised & expanded, London: Allen & Unwin, 1919; Boston: Four Seas, 1921.
  • Images of Desire. London: Elkin Mathews, 1919.
  • Images. London: The Egoist, 1919.
  • War and Love, 1915-1918. Boston: Four Seas, 1919. (poems from Images of War & Images of desire)
  • The Berkshire Kennet (poem). London: Curwen Press, 1923.
  • Collected Poems, 1915-1923. London: Allen & Unwin, 1923.
  • Exile, and other poems. London: Allen & Unwin, 1923. (includes "The Berkshire Kennet")
  • A Fool i' the Forest: a phantasmagoria (long poem). London: Allen & Unwin, 1924.
  • Hark the Herald. Paris: Hours Press, 1928.
  • The Eaten Heart (long poem). Chapelle-Reanville, Eure, France: Hours Press, 1929; London: Heinemann, 1931.
  • Collected Poems. New York: Covici Friede, 1928; London: Allen & Unwin, 1929.
  • Movietones: Invented and set down by Richard Aldington, 1928-1929. privately printed, 1932.
  • A Dream in the Luxembourg (long poem). London: Chatto and Windus, 1930
    • published in U.S. as Love and the Luxembourg.New York: Covici, Friede, 1930.
  • The Poems of Richard Aldington. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1934.
  • Life Quest (lond poem). London: Chatto & Windus, 1935. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1935.
  • The Crystal World (long poem). London: Heinemann, 1937.
  • The Complete Poems of Richard Aldington. London: Allan Wingate, 1948.
  • The Poetry of Richard Aldington: A critical evaluation and an anthology of uncollected poems (edited by Norman T. Gates). University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 1975.
  • An Imagist at War: The complete war poems of Richard Aldington (edited by Michael Copp). Madison, NJ : Fairleigh Dickinson University Press / London : Associated University Presses, 2002.

PlaysEdit

  • Life of a Lady: A play (by Aldington & Derek Patmore). Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1936; London by Putnam, 1936.

NovelsEdit

  • Death of a Hero: A novel. New York: Covici, Friede, 1929; Garden City, NY: Garden City Publishing, 1929; London : Chatto & Windus, 1929 and 1930.
    • unexpurgated edition, Paris: Henry Babou & Jack Kahane, 1930.
    • (introduction by Christopher Ridgway). London : Hogarth Press, 1984.
  • The Colonel's Daughter : a Novel. London: Chatto & Windus, 1931; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1931.
    • London: Hogarth Press, 1986.
  • Stepping Heavenward: A record. Florence: G. Orioli, 1931; London: Chatto & Windus, 1931.
  • All Men are Enemies: A romance. London: Chatto & Windus, 1933; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1933.
  • Women Must Work: A novel. London: Chatto & Windus, 1934; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1934.
  • Very Heaven. London: Heinemann, 1937; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1937.
  • Seven Against Reeves: A comedy-farce. London: Heinemann, 1938; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1938.
  • Rejected Guest: A novel. New York: Viking, 1939; London: Heinemann, 1939.
  • The Romance of Casanova: a Novel. New York: Duell, Sloan, & Pearce, 1946; London: Heinemann, 1947.

Short fictionEdit

  • Roads to Glory. London: Chatto & Windus, 1930
    • (with introduction by David Wilkinson). Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1931.
    • London : Imperial War Museum, Department of Printed Books, 1992.
  • Two Stories. London: Elkin Mathews & Marrot, 1930.
  • Last Straws. Paris : Hours Press, 1930; Folcroft, PA: Folcroft Press, 1969.
  • Soft Answers. London: Chatto & Windus, 1932; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1932; Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1967.
  • At All Costs (short stories), London: Heinemann, 1930.
  • The Squire. London: Heinemann, 1934.

Non-fictionEdit

  • "John Norris. A 17th Century Worthy." In: The Times (London), Saturday, May 6, 1922 (Issue 43024), p. 16E
  • Literary Studies and Reviews. London: Allen and Unwin, 1924; New York: L. MacVeagh, Dial Press, 1924.
  • Voltaire. London: Routledge, 1925; New York: E.P. Dutton, 1925.
  • French Studies and Reviews. London: Allen & Unwin, 1926; New York: Dial Press, 1926; Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1967.
  • D.H. Lawrence: An indiscretion. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Book Store (University of Washington Chapbooks, No. 6), 1927
    • published in UK as D.H. Lawrence. London: Chatto & Windus, 1930.
  • Remy de Gourmont: A modern man of letters. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Book Store (University of Washington Chapbooks, No. 13), 1928.
  • Balls and Another Book for Suppression. London: E. Lahr (Blue Moon Booklet, No. 7), 1930.
    • Balls. Privately printed, 1932.
  • D.H. Lawrence: A complete list of his works, together with a critical appreciation. London: Heinemann, [1935?]
  • Artifex: Sketches and ideas. London: Chatto & Windus, 1935; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1935.
  • "Knowledge and the Novelist", Times Literary Supplement, Saturday, July 2, 1938, p. 448.
  • W. Somerset Maugham: an Appreciation by Richard Aldington (in Sixty-Five, by W. Somerset Maugham). Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1939.
    • published as Sixty-five Short Stories. London: Heinemann, 1976.
  • "Farewell to Europe" in: Atlantic Monthly. Volume 66, no. 3 (Sept. 1940) pp. 376-396; Volume 66, no. 4 (Oct. 1940) pp. 510-530; Volume 66, no. 5 (Nov. 1940) pp. 644-664; Volume 66, no. 6 (Dec. 1940) pp. 774-796.
  • Life for Life's Sake: a Book of Reminiscences. New York: Viking, 1941 (includes "Farewell to Europe)."
  • The Duke: Being an account of the life & achievements of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. New York: Viking, 1943
    • published in U.K. as Wellington: Being an account of the life & achievements of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. London: Heinemann, 1946.
  • Jane Austen. Pasadena, CA: Ampersand Press, 1948.
  • Four English Portraits, 1801-1851. London: Evans Bros, 1948.
  • The Strange Life of Charles Waterton, 1782-1865. London: Evans Bros, 1949; New York: Duell, Sloan, & Pearce, 1949.
  • D.H. Lawrence: An appreciation. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, UK: Penguin, 1950
    • published in U.S. as D.H. Lawrence: Portrait of a Genius But... New York: Duell, Sloan, & Pearce, 1949.
  • Pinorman: Personal Recollections of Norman Douglas, Pino Orioli, and Charles Prentice. London: Heinemann, 1954.
  • Ezra Pound and T.S. Eliot: A lecture. New York: Oriole Chapbooks, [1953?]; Hurst, Berkshire, UK: Peacocks Press, 1954; London : Journeyman Press, 1978.
  • A.E. Housman and W.B. Yeats: Two Lectures. Hurst Berkshire, UK: Peacocks Press, 1955; Folcroft, PA: Folcroft Press, 1955; Folcroft, PA: Folcroft Library Editions, 1973.
  • Lawrence L'Imposteur: T.E. Lawrence, the legend and the man. Paris: Amiot-Dumont, 1954.
    • also published as Lawrence of Arabia: A biographical inquiry. London: Collins, 1955; Chicago by Henry Regnery, 1955.
  • Austria: A book of photographs. London: Spring Books, [1955?]
  • Switzerland: A book of photographs. London: Spring Books, [1955?]
  • "T.E. Lawrence, Aldington and the truth." (by B.H. Liddell Hart & Richard Aldington). London: The London Magazine, April & August 1955, Vol. 2, Nos. 4 & 8.
  • Introduction to Mistral. London: Heinemann, 1956; Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1960.
  • Frauds. London: Heinemann, 1957.
  • Portrait of a Rebel: The life and work of Robert Louis Stevenson. London, Evans Bros. 1957.
  • Famous Cities of the World: Rome. Hamlyn : 1960
  • A tourist's Rome. Draguignan, France: Melissa Press, [1960 or 1961].
  • A Letter from Richard Aldington, and a summary bibliography of Count Potocki's published works. Draguignan, France: Melissa Press, 1962.
  • Farewell to Memories. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1963.
  • Selected Critical Writings, 1928-1960 (edited by Alister Kershaw). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1970.

TranslatedEdit

  • Feodor Solygub, The Little Demon (with John Cournos). New York: Knopf, 1916.
  • The poems of Anyte of Tegea. London: : The Egoist / Ballantyne Press, 1915. Cleveland, OH: Clerk's Press, 1917.
  • Folgore, da San Gimignano, The Garland of Months: The Italian text with English prose translation Cleveland, OH: Clerk's Press, 1917.
  • Greek songs in the manner of Anacreon. London : The Egoist, 1919.
  • Medallions in Clay. New York: Knopf, 1921.
    • published in UK as Medallions from Anyte of Tegea, Meleager of Gadara, the Anacreontea, Latin poets of the renaissance. London, 1930.
  • Carlo Goldoni, The Good-Humoured Ladies: A comedy. London: Beaumont Press, 1922.[31]
  • Cyrano de Bergerac, Voyages to the Moon and the Sun. London, Routledge / New York, E.P. Dutton, 1923.
  • Pierre Custot, Sturly. London: Jonathan Cape, 1924; [31] Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin, [1925?].
  • Remy de Gourmont, Selections from all his works (illustrated by Andre Rouveyre). (2 volumes), Chicago: P. Covici, 1928. *Fifty Romance Lyric Poems. New York: C. Gaige, 1928; London: Allan Wingate, 1928; London: Chatto & Windus, 1931.
  • Candide, and other romances. London; Routledge, 1928; New York: E.P. Dutton, 1928; New York: Dodd Mead, 1928.
  • Julien Benda, The Treason of the Intellectuals (La trahison des clercs). New York : W. Morrow, 1928.
    • also published as The Betrayal of the Intellectuals (introduction by Herbert Read). Boston, Beacon Press, 1955.
  • Giovanni Boccaccio, The Decameron of Giovanni Boccaccio. New York, Covici, Friede, 1930; New York: Dell, 1975.
  • Euripides, Alcestis. London: Chatto & Windus, 1930; London & Toronto: Heinemann, 1930.
  • Antoine De La Sale, The Fifteen Joys of Marriage. New York: Renaissance Press, 1931.
  • Remy de Gourmont, Letters to the Amazon. London: Chatto & Windus, 1931.
  • Francois Marie Arouet de Voltaire, Candide, or, Optimism (introduction by Paul Morand; illustrated by Sylvain Sauvage). London: Nonesuch Press, 1939.
    • (introduction by Anatole Broyard, illustrated by May Neama). New York: Arranged by R. Ellis for the members of the Limited Editions Club, 1973.
  • Larousse encyclopedia of mythology (translated with Delano Ames; introduction by Robert Graves). New York: Prometheus Press, 1959.

EditedEdit

  • D.H. Lawrence, Apocalypse (introduction by Aldington). New York: Viking Press, 1932; London: M. Secker. 1932; (Phoenix edition), London: Heinemann, 1972; Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1974.
  • D.H. Lawrence Last Poems (edited with Giuseppe Orioli). Florence: Orioli, 1932. -- Limited to 750 copies.
    • new edition (with introduction by Aldington). London: Martin Secker, 1933; New York, Viking Press, 1933; London: Heinemann, 1935.
  • The Spirit of Place: An anthology compiled from the prose of D.H.Lawrence (edited with introduction by Aldington). London: Heinemann, 1935, 1944.
  • The Viking book of poetry of the English-speaking world. New York: Viking Press, 1941.
    • revised edition, 1946; (Mid-century edition) New York: Viking Press, 1958.
  • Oscar Wilde, Selected works: With 12 unpublished letters London & Toronto: Heinemann, 1946.
  • The Portable Oscar Wilde. New York: Viking Press, 1946.
  • The Religion of Beauty: Selections from the aesthetes. London: Heinemann, [1950].
  • The Indispensable Oscar Wilde. New York, Book Society, 1950.
  • D.H, Lawrence, Sea and Sardinia. London, Heinemann, 1950. 1956; New York: Viking Press, 1963; London: Heinemann, 1968.
  • Kangaroo (illustrated by Michael Jackson). London: distributed by Heron Books, 1969; New York: Viking Press, , 1976.

LettersEdit

  • A Passionate Prodigality: Letters to Alan Bird from Richard Aldington, 1949-1962 (edited by Miriam J. Benkovitz). New York: New York Public Library & Readers Books, 1975.
  • A Checklist of the Letters of Richard Aldington (compiled with an introduction by Norman Timmins Gates). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1977.
  • The Dearest Friend: A selection from the letters of Richard Aldington to John Cournos(edited by R.T. Risk). Francestown, NH: Typographeum, 1978.
  • Literary Lifelines: The Richard Aldington/Lawrence Durrell correspondence (edited by Ian S. McNiven & Harry T. Moore). New York: Viking, 1981.
  • Bubb Booklets: Letters of Richard Aldington to Charles Clinch Bubb (edited by Dean H. Keller; with a preface by Alister Kershaw). Francestown, NH: Typographeum, 1988.
  • Richard Aldington: An autobiography in letters (edited by Norman T. Gates). University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 1992.
  • Richard Aldington & H.D.: The early years in letters (edited with introduction by Caroline Zilboorg). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1992.
  • Richard Aldington & H.D.: The later years in letters(edited with introduction by Caroline Zilboorg). Manchester, UK, & New York: Manchester University Press, 1995.


Except where noted, bibliographic information courtesy Imagists.org. [32]

Audio / videoEdit

TERRY BUTCHER reads Bombardment - Richard Aldington01:06

TERRY BUTCHER reads Bombardment - Richard Aldington

  • Richard Aldington: Poems recorded at the City College of New York, April 4, 1940 (78). 1970.

Poems by Richard AldingtonEdit

  1. Bombardment
  2. Lesbia

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • "Richard Aldington: An Englishman" by Thomas MacGreevy
  • Richard Aldington by C. P. Snow
  • Richard Aldington: An intimate portrait (1965) by Alister Kershaw, and Frederic-Jacques Temple
  • A Catalogue of The Frank G. Harrington Collection of Richard Aldington and Hilda H.D. Doolittle (1973)
  • The Poetry of Richard Aldington (1974) Norman T. Gates
  • A Checklist of the Letters of Richard Aldington (1977) edited by Norman T. Gates
  • Richard Aldington: Papers from the Reading Conference. (1987) edited by Lionel Kelly
  • Richard Aldington: A biography (1989) Charles Doyle ISBN 0-8093-1566-1
  • Richard Aldington: Reappraisals (1990) edited by Charles Doyle
  • Richard Aldington: An autobiography in letters (1992) edited by Norman T. Gates

NotesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Peter Jones (editor), Imagist Poetry (1972), p. 163.
  2. Michael H. Levenson, A Genealogy of Modernism (1984), p. 69.
  3. Robert Ferguson, The Short Sharp Life of T.E. Hulme (2002), p. 85.
  4. Arrowsmith, Rupert Richard (2010). Modernism and the Museum: Asian, African, and Pacific Art and the London Avant-Garde. Oxford University Press. pp.128-164. ISBN 9780199593699
  5. Paul O'Keefe, Some Sort of Genius (2000), p. 164..
  6. John Paterson, Edwardians.
  7. When Blood is Their Argument: An Analysis of Prussian Culture
  8. Hugh Kenner, The Pound Era (1971), p. 279.
  9. Robert H. Ross, The Georgian Revolt (1967), p. 69.
  10. Robert H. Ross, The Georgian Revolt (1967), p. 71.
  11. [1]
  12. 12.0 12.1 Carole Seymour-Jones, Painted Shadow (2001), p. 173.
  13. Lyndall Gordon, Eliot's New Life (1988), p. 231.
  14. Nicholas Murray, Aldous Huxley: An English Intellectual (2002), p. 103
  15. Carole Seymour-Jones, Painted Shadow (2001), pp. 342-346.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Caroline Zilboorg (editor), Richard Aldington and H.D.: Their lives in letters 1918-1961, p. 185.
  17. Carole Seymour-Jones, Painted Shadow (2001), p. 229.
  18. Stanley Sultan, Eliot, Joyce, and Company (1987), p. 32.
  19. Carole Seymour-Jones, Painted Shadow (2001), pp. 471-472.
  20. http://www.londongardenstrust.org/guides/bloomsbury.htm
  21. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3362/is_/ai_n28632908
  22. Jonathan Bate, Chris Baldick, The Oxford English Literary History: Volume 10: The Modern Movement (1910-1940) (2002), p. 43.
  23. Michael Copp (editor), An Imagist at War: The Complete War Poems of Richard Aldington (2002), p. 18.
  24. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/features/te-lawrence-action-man-510021.html
  25. Thomas MacGreevy. In: Richard Aldington: An Intimate Portrait. 1965. p. 52
  26. Lyndall Gordon, Eliot's New Life (1988), p. 278.
  27. Alec Waugh, The Early Years (1962), p. 182 and p. 193.
  28. Lyndall Gordon, Eliot's Early Years (1977), p. 167.
  29. http://net.lib.byu.edu/english/wwi/poets/poets.html
  30. http://net.lib.byu.edu/english/wwi/poets/Preface.html
  31. 31.0 31.1 Richard Aldington 1892-1962, Poetry Foundation. Web, Mar. 16, 2014.
  32. Bibliography, Richard Aldingyon, Imagists.org. Web, Mar. 16, 2014.

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