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The Pulitzer Prizes
Gen pulitzer
Joseph Pulitzer    •    Pulitzers by year
Pulitzer winners
Journalism:
Letters and drama:
Other prizes:

The Pulitzer Prize (11px /ˈpʊlɨtsər/) is a U.S. award for achievements in newspaper and online journalism, literature and musical composition. It was established by American publisher Joseph Pulitzer and is administered by Columbia University in New York City. According to the administrators of the Pulitzer Prize the correct pronunciation of the name should sound like the verb pull, as in "Pull it, sir"[1]

Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of these, each winner receives a certificate and a US$10,000 cash award.[2] The winner in the public service category of the journalism competition is awarded a gold medal, which always goes to a newspaper, although an individual may be named in the citation.

Entry and prize considerationEdit

The Pulitzer Prize does not automatically evaluate all applicable works in the media, but only those that have been entered with a $50 entry fee[3] (one per desired entry category). Entries must fit in at least one of the specific prize categories, and cannot simply gain entrance on the grounds of having general literary or compositional properties.[3] Works can also only be entered into a maximum of two prize categories, regardless of their properties.

The difference between entrants and nominated finalistsEdit

Anyone whose work has been submitted is called an "entrant". The jury selects a small group of “nominated finalists” and announces them together with the winner for each category.

HistoryEdit

The prize was established by Joseph Pulitzer, journalist and newspaper publisher, who founded the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, and bought the New York World. Pulitzer left money to Columbia University upon his death in 1911. A portion of his bequest was used to found the university's journalism school in 1912. The first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded June 4, 1917; they are now announced each April. Recipients are chosen by an independent board.

RecipientsEdit

Recipients of the Pulitzer Prize include:

Recipients of more than one Pulitzer Prize include David McCullough (twice) for Biography; Robert Frost (four times), Archibald MacLeish (three times), and Robert Lowell (twice) for Poetry; Gene Weingarten (twice) for Feature Writing; Thomas L. Friedman (three times) for International Reporting and Commentary; Margaret Leech (twice) for History; Eugene O'Neill (four times), Edward Albee (three times), and August Wilson (twice) for Drama; Norman Mailer (twice) for Fiction and Non-Fiction; and William Faulkner (twice), John Updike (twice), John Steinbeck (three times), and Booth Tarkington (twice) for Novel / Fiction. (This category's name was changed in 1948 from Novel to Fiction.)

Both Eugene O'Neill and Booth Tarkington accomplished the feat of winning the prize twice in a four-year period. Gene Weingarten won twice in a three-year period (2008 and 2010). Thornton Wilder, Carl Sandburg, and Robert Penn Warren are notable for winning prizes in more than one category. Wilder won once in the Novel category and twice in Drama, Warren won once for Fiction and twice for Poetry, and Sandburg won once for Biography and twice for Poetry.

CategoriesEdit

The Pulitzer Prizes
Gen pulitzer
Joseph Pulitzer    •    Pulitzers by year
Pulitzer winners
Journalism:
Letters and drama:
Other prizes:

Awards are made in categories relating to newspaper journalism, arts, and letters and fiction. Only published reports and photographs by United States-based newspapers or daily news organizations are eligible for the journalism prize. Beginning in 2007, "an assortment of online elements will be permitted in all journalism categories except for the competition's two photography categories, which will continue to restrict entries to still images."[4] In December 2008 it was announced that for the first time content published in online-only news sources would be considered.[5]

The current Pulitzer Prize category definitions in the 2008 competition, in the order they are awarded, are:

  • Public Service – for a distinguished example of meritorious public service by a newspaper through the use of its journalistic resources, which may include editorials, cartoons, and photographs, as well as reporting. Often thought of as the grand prize, the Public Service award is given to the newspaper, not to individuals, though individuals are often mentioned for their contributions.
  • Breaking News Reporting – for a distinguished example of local reporting of breaking news.
  • Investigative Reporting – for a distinguished example of investigative reporting by an individual or team, presented as a single newspaper article or series.
  • Explanatory Reporting – for a distinguished example of explanatory newspaper reporting that illuminates a significant and complex subject, demonstrating mastery of the subject, lucid writing, and clear presentation.
  • Local Reporting – for a distinguished example of local newspaper reporting that illuminates significant issues or concerns.[4]
  • National Reporting – for a distinguished example of newspaper reporting on national affairs.
  • International Reporting – for a distinguished example of newspaper reporting on international affairs, including United Nations correspondence.
  • Feature Writing – for a distinguished example of newspaper feature writing giving prime consideration to high literary quality and originality.
  • Commentary – for distinguished commentary.
  • Criticism – for distinguished criticism.
  • Editorial Writing – for distinguished editorial writing, the test of excellence being clarity of style, moral purpose, sound reasoning, and power to influence public opinion in what the writer perceives to be the right direction.
  • Editorial Cartooning – for a distinguished cartoon or portfolio of cartoons published during the year, characterized by originality, editorial effectiveness, quality of drawing, and pictorial effect.
  • Breaking News Photography, previously called Spot News Photography – for a distinguished example of breaking news photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence, or an album.
  • Feature Photography – for a distinguished example of feature photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence, or an album.

There are six categories in letters and drama:

  • Fiction – for distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life.
  • Drama – for a distinguished play by an American playwright, preferably original in its source and dealing with American life.
  • History – for a distinguished book on the history of the United States.
  • Biography or Autobiography – for a distinguished biography or autobiography by an American author.
  • Poetry – for a distinguished volume of original verse by an American poet.
  • General Non-Fiction – for a distinguished book of non-fiction by an American author that is not eligible for consideration in any other category.

There is one prize given for music:

  • Pulitzer Prize for Music – for a distinguished musical contribution by an American that had its first performance or recording in the United States during the year.

There have also been a number of Special Citations and Awards.

In addition to the prizes, Pulitzer travelling fellowships are awarded to four outstanding students of the Graduate School of Journalism as selected by the faculty.

BoardEdit

Pulitzer prizes are decided by the Pulitzer board. The 2009-2010 board members were[6]:

Discontinued awardsEdit

Over the years, awards have been discontinued either because the field of the award has been expanded to encompass other areas, the award been renamed because the common terminology changed, or the award has become obsolete, such as the prizes for telegraphic reporting, which was based on the old technology of the telegram.

An example of a writing field that has been expanded was the former Pulitzer Prize for the Novel, which has been changed to the Pultizer Prize for Fiction, which also includes short stories, novellas, novelettes, and fictional poetry, as well as novels.

To find, for example, all the winners for investigative reporting, you have to also look back at the prize for local investigative specialized reporting, which previously was the prize for local reporting, no edition time.

Discontinued or merged categories include:

Brief chronology of renamings, splittings, and introductionsEdit

1917: + Biography or Autobiography; + History; + Editorial Writing; + Reporting

1918: + Novel; + Drama; + Public Service

1922: + Poetry; + Editorial Cartooning

1929: + Correspondence

1942: + Photography; + Telegraphic Reporting—National; + Telegraphic Reporting—International

1943: + Music

1948: – Correspondence; – Novel + Fiction; – Reporting + Local reporting; – Telegraphic Reporting—National + National Reporting; – Telegraphic Reporting—International + International Reporting

1953: – Local reporting + Local Reporting, Edition Time; + Local Reporting, No Edition Time

1962: + General Non-Fiction

1964: – Local Reporting, Edition Time + Local General or Spot News Reporting; – Local Reporting, No Edition Time + Local Investigative Specialized Reporting

1968: – Photography; + Feature Photography; + Spot News Photography

1970: + Commentary; + Criticism

1979: + Feature Writing

1985: – Local General or Spot News Reporting + General News Reporting; – Local Investigative Specialized Reporting; + Investigative Reporting; + Specialized Reporting; + Explanatory Journalism

1991: – General News Reporting + Spot News Reporting; – Specialized Reporting + Beat Reporting

1998: – Spot News Reporting + Breaking News Reporting; – Explanatory Journalism + Explanatory Reporting

2000: – Spot News Photography + Breaking News Photography

2007: – Beat Reporting + Local reporting

ControversiesEdit

CriticismEdit

Some critics of the Pulitzer Prize have accused the organization of favoring those who support liberal causes or oppose conservative causes. Syndicated columnist L. Brent Bozell said that the Pulitzer Prize has a "liberal legacy," particularly in its prize for commentary.[7] He pointed to a 31-year period in which only 5 conservatives won prizes for commentary. The claim is also supported by a statement from the 2010 Pulitzer Prize winner for commentary, Kathleen Parker: "it's only because I'm a conservative basher that I'm now recognized." [8]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

11. Auxier, George W. (March 1940). "Middle Western Newspapers and the Spanish American War, 1895–1898". Mississippi Valley Historical Review (Organization of American Historians) 26 (4): pp. 523. doi:10.2307/1896320. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1896320. 

NotesEdit

External linksEdit

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