|The Pulitzer Prizes|
|Joseph Pulitzer • Pulitzers by year|
|Letters and drama:|
The Pulitzer Prize (11px //) is a U.S. award for achievements in newspaper and online journalism, literature and musical composition. It was established by American publisher Joseph Pulitzer and is administered by Columbia University in New York City. According to the administrators of the Pulitzer Prize the correct pronunciation of the name should sound like the verb pull, as in "Pull it, sir"
Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of these, each winner receives a certificate and a US$10,000 cash award. The winner in the public service category of the journalism competition is awarded a gold medal, which always goes to a newspaper, although an individual may be named in the citation.
Entry and prize considerationEdit
The Pulitzer Prize does not automatically evaluate all applicable works in the media, but only those that have been entered with a $50 entry fee (one per desired entry category). Entries must fit in at least one of the specific prize categories, and cannot simply gain entrance on the grounds of having general literary or compositional properties. Works can also only be entered into a maximum of two prize categories, regardless of their properties.
The difference between entrants and nominated finalistsEdit
Anyone whose work has been submitted is called an "entrant". The jury selects a small group of “nominated finalists” and announces them together with the winner for each category.
The prize was established by Joseph Pulitzer, journalist and newspaper publisher, who founded the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, and bought the New York World. Pulitzer left money to Columbia University upon his death in 1911. A portion of his bequest was used to found the university's journalism school in 1912. The first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded June 4, 1917; they are now announced each April. Recipients are chosen by an independent board.
Recipients of the Pulitzer Prize include:
- President John F. Kennedy for Biography
- Margaret Mitchell, Saul Bellow, Ernest Hemingway, Eudora Welty, Harper Lee, William Faulkner, Upton Sinclair, Toni Morrison for Fiction
- Roger Ebert for Criticism
- Tennessee Williams, Arthur Miller, Rodgers and Hammerstein, Stephen Sondheim for Drama
- Alice Walker for The Color Purple, Cormac McCarthy for The Road, and David Mamet for Glengarry Glen Ross.
Recipients of more than one Pulitzer Prize include David McCullough (twice) for Biography; Robert Frost (four times), Archibald MacLeish (three times), and Robert Lowell (twice) for Poetry; Gene Weingarten (twice) for Feature Writing; Thomas L. Friedman (three times) for International Reporting and Commentary; Margaret Leech (twice) for History; Eugene O'Neill (four times), Edward Albee (three times), and August Wilson (twice) for Drama; Norman Mailer (twice) for Fiction and Non-Fiction; and William Faulkner (twice), John Updike (twice), John Steinbeck (three times), and Booth Tarkington (twice) for Novel / Fiction. (This category's name was changed in 1948 from Novel to Fiction.)
Both Eugene O'Neill and Booth Tarkington accomplished the feat of winning the prize twice in a four-year period. Gene Weingarten won twice in a three-year period (2008 and 2010). Thornton Wilder, Carl Sandburg, and Robert Penn Warren are notable for winning prizes in more than one category. Wilder won once in the Novel category and twice in Drama, Warren won once for Fiction and twice for Poetry, and Sandburg won once for Biography and twice for Poetry.
|The Pulitzer Prizes|
|Joseph Pulitzer • Pulitzers by year|
|Letters and drama:|
Awards are made in categories relating to newspaper journalism, arts, and letters and fiction. Only published reports and photographs by United States-based newspapers or daily news organizations are eligible for the journalism prize. Beginning in 2007, "an assortment of online elements will be permitted in all journalism categories except for the competition's two photography categories, which will continue to restrict entries to still images." In December 2008 it was announced that for the first time content published in online-only news sources would be considered.
The current Pulitzer Prize category definitions in the 2008 competition, in the order they are awarded, are:
- Public Service – for a distinguished example of meritorious public service by a newspaper through the use of its journalistic resources, which may include editorials, cartoons, and photographs, as well as reporting. Often thought of as the grand prize, the Public Service award is given to the newspaper, not to individuals, though individuals are often mentioned for their contributions.
- Breaking News Reporting – for a distinguished example of local reporting of breaking news.
- Investigative Reporting – for a distinguished example of investigative reporting by an individual or team, presented as a single newspaper article or series.
- Explanatory Reporting – for a distinguished example of explanatory newspaper reporting that illuminates a significant and complex subject, demonstrating mastery of the subject, lucid writing, and clear presentation.
- Local Reporting – for a distinguished example of local newspaper reporting that illuminates significant issues or concerns.
- National Reporting – for a distinguished example of newspaper reporting on national affairs.
- International Reporting – for a distinguished example of newspaper reporting on international affairs, including United Nations correspondence.
- Feature Writing – for a distinguished example of newspaper feature writing giving prime consideration to high literary quality and originality.
- Commentary – for distinguished commentary.
- Criticism – for distinguished criticism.
- Editorial Writing – for distinguished editorial writing, the test of excellence being clarity of style, moral purpose, sound reasoning, and power to influence public opinion in what the writer perceives to be the right direction.
- Editorial Cartooning – for a distinguished cartoon or portfolio of cartoons published during the year, characterized by originality, editorial effectiveness, quality of drawing, and pictorial effect.
- Breaking News Photography, previously called Spot News Photography – for a distinguished example of breaking news photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence, or an album.
- Feature Photography – for a distinguished example of feature photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence, or an album.
There are six categories in letters and drama:
- Fiction – for distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life.
- Drama – for a distinguished play by an American playwright, preferably original in its source and dealing with American life.
- History – for a distinguished book on the history of the United States.
- Biography or Autobiography – for a distinguished biography or autobiography by an American author.
- Poetry – for a distinguished volume of original verse by an American poet.
- General Non-Fiction – for a distinguished book of non-fiction by an American author that is not eligible for consideration in any other category.
There is one prize given for music:
- Pulitzer Prize for Music – for a distinguished musical contribution by an American that had its first performance or recording in the United States during the year.
There have also been a number of Special Citations and Awards.
In addition to the prizes, Pulitzer travelling fellowships are awarded to four outstanding students of the Graduate School of Journalism as selected by the faculty.
Pulitzer prizes are decided by the Pulitzer board. The 2009-2010 board members were:
- Danielle Allen, Professor, Departments of Classics and Political Science and the Committee on Social Thought, University of Chicago
- Jim Amoss, Editor, The Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Louisiana
- Randell Beck, President and Publisher, Argus Leader Media, Sioux Falls, SD
- Amanda Bennett, Executive Editor/Enterprise, Bloomberg News
- Lee Bollinger, President, Columbia University
- Kathleen Carroll, Executive Editor and Senior Vice President, Associated Press
- Joyce Dehli, Vice President for News, Lee Enterprises
- Thomas Friedman, Columnist, The New York Times
- Paul Gigot, Editorial Page Editor, The Wall Street Journal
- Sig Gissler, Administrator, Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism
- Anders Gyllenhaal, Executive Editor, The Miami Herald
- David M. Kennedy, Donald J. McLachlan Professor of History, Stanford University
- Nicholas Lemann, Dean, Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism
- Ann Marie Lipinski, former Senior Vice President and Editor (2001–2008), Chicago Tribune
- Gregory Moore, Editor, The Denver Post
- Paul Tash, Editor, CEO, and Chairman, St. Petersburg Times
- Jim VandeHei, Executive Editor and Co-founder, Politico
- Keven Ann Willey, Vice President/Editorial Page Editor, Dallas Morning News
Over the years, awards have been discontinued either because the field of the award has been expanded to encompass other areas, the award been renamed because the common terminology changed, or the award has become obsolete, such as the prizes for telegraphic reporting, which was based on the old technology of the telegram.
An example of a writing field that has been expanded was the former Pulitzer Prize for the Novel, which has been changed to the Pultizer Prize for Fiction, which also includes short stories, novellas, novelettes, and fictional poetry, as well as novels.
To find, for example, all the winners for investigative reporting, you have to also look back at the prize for local investigative specialized reporting, which previously was the prize for local reporting, no edition time.
Discontinued or merged categories include:
- Pulitzer Prize for Reporting, 1917–1947.
- Pulitzer Prize for Correspondence, 1929–1947.
- Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Journalism, became the Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Reporting.
- Pulitzer Prize for General News Reporting, 1985–1990, became the Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting.
- Pulitzer Prize for Local General or Spot News Reporting, 1964–1984, became the Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting.
- Pulitzer Prize for Local Investigative Specialized Reporting, 1964–1984, became the Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting.
- Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting, Edition Time, 1953–1963, became the Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting.
- Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting, No Edition Time, 1953–1963, became the Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting.
- Pulitzer Prize for Photography, was divided in 1968 into Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography and a spot news category, which became the Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Photography.
- Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Reporting, 1991–1997, became the Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting.
- Pulitzer Prize for Telegraphic Reporting - International, became the Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting.
- Pulitzer Prize for Telegraphic Reporting - National, became the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting.
- Pulitzer Prize for Specialized Reporting 1985–1990, became the Pulitzer Prize for Beat Reporting.
- Pulitzer Prize for Beat Reporting, 1991–2006; replaced by the reinstituted Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting
- Pulitzer Prize for the Novel, became the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.
Brief chronology of renamings, splittings, and introductionsEdit
1917: + Biography or Autobiography; + History; + Editorial Writing; + Reporting
1918: + Novel; + Drama; + Public Service
1922: + Poetry; + Editorial Cartooning
1929: + Correspondence
1942: + Photography; + Telegraphic Reporting—National; + Telegraphic Reporting—International
1943: + Music
1948: – Correspondence; – Novel + Fiction; – Reporting + Local reporting; – Telegraphic Reporting—National + National Reporting; – Telegraphic Reporting—International + International Reporting
1953: – Local reporting + Local Reporting, Edition Time; + Local Reporting, No Edition Time
1962: + General Non-Fiction
1964: – Local Reporting, Edition Time + Local General or Spot News Reporting; – Local Reporting, No Edition Time + Local Investigative Specialized Reporting
1968: – Photography; + Feature Photography; + Spot News Photography
1970: + Commentary; + Criticism
1979: + Feature Writing
1985: – Local General or Spot News Reporting + General News Reporting; – Local Investigative Specialized Reporting; + Investigative Reporting; + Specialized Reporting; + Explanatory Journalism
1991: – General News Reporting + Spot News Reporting; – Specialized Reporting + Beat Reporting
1998: – Spot News Reporting + Breaking News Reporting; – Explanatory Journalism + Explanatory Reporting
2000: – Spot News Photography + Breaking News Photography
2007: – Beat Reporting + Local reporting
- Calls for revocation of journalist Walter Duranty's 1932 Pulitzer Prize
- Call for revocation of journalist William L. Laurence's 1946 Pulitzer Prize
- The other 11 members of the Pulitzer Prize board overturning the nomination committee's unanimous endorsement of Gravity's Rainbow for the 1974 Fiction Award, resulting in no prize awarded that year.
- Forfeiture of Janet Cooke's 1981 Pulitzer Prize for Feature Writing for fabricating the story.
Some critics of the Pulitzer Prize have accused the organization of favoring those who support liberal causes or oppose conservative causes. Syndicated columnist L. Brent Bozell said that the Pulitzer Prize has a "liberal legacy," particularly in its prize for commentary. He pointed to a 31-year period in which only 5 conservatives won prizes for commentary. The claim is also supported by a statement from the 2010 Pulitzer Prize winner for commentary, Kathleen Parker: "it's only because I'm a conservative basher that I'm now recognized." 
11. Auxier, George W. (March 1940). "Middle Western Newspapers and the Spanish American War, 1895–1898". Mississippi Valley Historical Review (Organization of American Historians) 26 (4): pp. 523. doi:10.2307/1896320. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1896320.
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