New Zealand (Aotearoa in Māori) is an island country]] in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island) and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some 1500 km Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoff east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly 1000 k,Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoff south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Due to its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long isolation New Zealand developed a distinctive fauna dominated by |birds, many of which became extinct after the arrival of humans introduced mammals. With a mild maritime climate, the land was mostly covered in forest. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions caused by the Pacific and Indo-Australian Plates clashing underfoot.
Polynesians settled New Zealand in 1250–1300 AD and developed a distinctive Māori culture, and Europeans first made contact in 1642 AD. The introduction of potatoes and muskets triggered upheaval among Māori early during the 19th century, which led to the inter-tribal Musket Wars. In 1840 the British and Māori signed a treaty making New Zealand a colony of the British Empire. Immigrant numbers increased sharply and conflicts escalated into the Land Wars, which resulted in much Māori land being confiscated in the mid North Island. Economic depressions were followed by periods of political reform, with women gaining the vote during the 1890s, and a welfare state being established from the 1930s. After World War II, New Zealand joined Australia and the United States in the ANZUS security treaty, although the United States later suspended the treaty after New Zealand banned nuclear weapons. New Zealanders enjoyed one of the highest standards of living in the world in the 1950s, but the 1970s saw a deep recession, worsened by oil shocks and the United Kingdom's entry into the European Economic Community. The country underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy. Markets for New Zealand's agricultural exports have diversified greatly since the 1970s, with once-dominant exports of wool being overtaken by dairy products, meat, and recently wine.
The majority of New Zealand's population is of European descent; the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and non-Māori Polynesians. English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language are the official languages, with English predominant. Much of New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. Early European art was dominated by landscapes and to a lesser extent portraits of Māori. A recent resurgence of Māori culture has seen their traditional arts of carving, weaving and tattooing become more mainstream. Many artists now combine Māori and Western techniques to create unique art forms. The country's culture has also been broadened by globalisation and increased immigration from the Pacific Islands and Asia. New Zealand's diverse landscape provides many opportunities for outdoor pursuits and has provided the backdrop for a number of big budget movies.
New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; these have less autonomy than the country's long defunct provinces did. Nationally, executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister. Queen Elizabeth II is the country's head of state and is represented by a Governor-General. The Queen's Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau (a dependent territory); the Cook Islands and Niue (self-governing but in free association); and the Ross Dependency, New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the Pacific Islands Forum, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
- Main article: New Zealand place names
Aotearoa (which literally translates as "land of the long white cloud") is the current Māori name for New Zealand, and is also used in New Zealand English. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa originally referring to just the North Island. Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Landt, assuming it was connected to land off the southern tip of South America. In 1645 Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand.[n 8]
Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui (the fish of Māui) for the North Island and Te Wai Pounamu (the waters of greenstone) or Te Waka o Aoraki (the canoe of Aoraki) for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North (North Island), Middle (South Island) and South (Stewart Island / Rakiura). In 1830 maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, but there are now plans to do so. The board is also considering suitable Māori names, with Te Ika-a-Māui and Te Wai Pounamu the most likely choices according to the chairman of the Māori Language Commission. Template:Clearleft
- Main article: History of New Zealand
New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands. Over the centuries that followed these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi (tribes) and hapū (subtribes) which would cooperate, compete and sometimes fight with each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu (the Chatham Islands) where they developed their distinct Moriori culture. The Moriori population was decimated between 1835 and 1862, largely due to European diseases and Māori invasion and enslavement. In 1862 only 101 survived and the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933.
The first Europeans known to have reached New Zealand were Dutch explorer Abel Tasman and his crew in 1642. In a hostile encounter, four crew members were killed and at least one Māori was hit by canister shot. Europeans did not revisit New Zealand until 1769 when British explorer James Cook mapped almost the entire coastline. Following Cook, New Zealand was visited by numerous European and North American whaling, sealing and trading ships. They traded food, metal tools, weapons and other goods for timber, food, artefacts, water, and on occasion sex. The introduction of the potato and the musket transformed Māori agriculture and warfare. Potatoes provided a reliable food surplus, which enabled longer and more sustained military campaigns. The resulting inter-tribal Musket Wars encompassed over 600 battles between 1801 and 1840, killing between 30,000–40,000 Māori. From the early 19th century, Christian missionaries began to settle New Zealand, eventually converting most of the Māori population. The Māori population declined to around 40 percent of its pre-contact level during the 19th century; introduced diseases were the major factor.
The British government appointed James Busby as British Resident to New Zealand in 1832 and in 1835, following an announcement of impending French sovereignty, the nebulous United Tribes of New Zealand sent a Declaration of the Independence to King William IV of the United Kingdom asking for protection. Ongoing unrest and the dubious legal standing of the Declaration of Independence prompted the Colonial Office to send Captain William Hobson to claim sovereignty for the British Crown and negotiate a treaty with the Māori. The Treaty of Waitangi was first signed in the Bay of Islands on 6 February 1840. In response to the commercially run New Zealand Company's attempts to establish an independent settlement in Wellington and French settlers "purchasing" land in Akaroa, Hobson declared British sovereignty over all of New Zealand on 21 May 1840, even though copies of the Treaty were still circulating. With the signing of the Treaty and declaration of sovereignty the number of immigrants, particularly from the United Kingdom, began to increase.
New Zealand, originally part of the colony of New South Wales, became a separate Crown colony in 1841. The colony gained a representative government in 1852 and the 1st New Zealand Parliament met in 1854. In 1856 the colony effectively became self-governing, gaining responsibility over all domestic matters other than native policy. (Control over native policy was granted in the mid-1860s.) Following concerns that the South Island might form a separate colony, premier Alfred Domett moved a resolution to transfer the capital from Auckland to a locality near the Cook Strait. Wellington was chosen due to its harbour and central location, with parliament officially sitting there for the first time in 1865. As immigrant numbers increased, conflicts over land led to the New Zealand Land Wars of the 1860s and 1870s, resulting in the loss and confiscation of much Māori land. In 1893 the country became the first nation in the world to grant all women the right to vote and in 1894 pioneered the adoption of compulsory arbitration between employers and unions.
In 1907 New Zealand declared itself a Dominion within the British Empire and in 1947 the country adopted the Statute of Westminster, making New Zealand a Commonwealth realm. New Zealand was involved in world affairs, fighting alongside the British Empire in the first and second World Wars and suffering through the Great Depression. The depression led to the election of the first Labour government and the establishment of a comprehensive welfare state and a protectionist economy. New Zealand experienced increasing prosperity following World War II and Māori began to leave their traditional rural life and move to the cities in search of work. A Māori protest movement developed, which criticised Eurocentrism and worked for greater recognition of Māori culture and the Treaty of Waitangi. In 1975, a Waitangi Tribunal was set up to investigate alleged breaches of the Treaty, and it was enabled to investigate historic grievances in 1985. The government has negotiated settlements of these grievances with many iwi, although Māori claims to the foreshore and seabed have proved controversial in the 2000s.
- Main article: Politics of New Zealand
- Main article: Government of New Zealand
New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy, although its constitution is not codified. Queen Elizabeth II is the Queen of New Zealand and the head of state. The Queen is represented by the Governor-General, whom she appoints on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Governor-General can exercise the Crown's prerogative powers (such as reviewing cases of injustice and making appointments of Cabinet ministers, ambassadors and other key public officials) and in rare situations, the reserve powers (the power to dismiss a Prime Minister, dissolve Parliament or refuse the Royal Assent of a bill into law). The powers of the Queen and the Governor-General are limited by constitutional constraints and they cannot normally be exercised without the advice of Cabinet.
The Parliament of New Zealand holds legislative power and consists of the Sovereign (represented by the Governor-General) and the House of Representatives. The supremacy of the House over the Sovereign was established in England by the Bill of Rights 1689 and has been ratified as law in New Zealand. The House of Representatives is democratically elected and a Government is formed from the party or coalition with the majority of seats. If no majority is formed a minority government can be formed if support from other parties is obtained through confidence votes. The Governor-General appoints ministers under advice from the Prime Minister, who is by convention the Parliamentary leader of the governing party or coalition. Cabinet, formed by ministers and led by the Prime Minister, is the highest policy-making body in government and responsible for deciding significant government actions. By convention, members of cabinet are bound by collective responsibility to decisions made by cabinet.
Judges and judicial officers are appointed non-politically and under strict rules regarding tenure to help maintain constitutional independence from the government. This theoretically allows the judiciary to interpret the law based solely on the legislation enacted by Parliament without other influences on their decisions. The Privy Council in London was the country's final court of appeal until 2004, when it was replaced with the newly established Supreme Court of New Zealand. The judiciary, headed by the Chief Justice, includes the Court of Appeal, the High Court, and subordinate courts.
Almost all parliamentary general elections between 1853 and 1996 were held under the first past the post voting system. The elections since 1930 have been dominated by two political parties, National and Labour. Since 1996, a form of proportional representation called Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) has been used. Under the MMP system each person has two votes; one is for the 65 electoral seats (including seven reserved for Māori), and the other is for a party. The remaining 55 seats are assigned so that representation in parliament reflects the party vote, although a party has to win one electoral seat or 5 percent of the total party vote before it is eligible for these seats. Between March 2005 and August 2006 New Zealand became the only country in the world in which all the highest offices in the land (Head of State, Governor-General, Prime Minister, Speaker and Chief Justice) were occupied simultaneously by women.
Foreign relations and the militaryEdit
- Main article: Foreign relations of New Zealand
Early colonial New Zealand allowed the British Government to determine external trade and be responsible for foreign policy. The 1923 and 1926 Imperial Conferences decided that New Zealand should be allowed to negotiate their own political treaties, with the first successful commercial treaty being with Japan in 1928. Despite this independence New Zealand readily followed Britain in declaring war on Germany on 3 September 1939 with then Prime Minister Michael Savage proclaiming, "Where she goes, we go; where she stands, we stand."
In 1951 the United Kingdom became increasingly focused on its European interests, while New Zealand joined Australia and the United States in the ANZUS security treaty. The influence of the United States on New Zealand weakened following protests over the Vietnam War, the failure of the United States to admonish France after the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, disagreements over environmental and agricultural trade issues and New Zealand's nuclear-free policy. Despite the USA's suspension of ANZUS obligations the treaty remained in effect between New Zealand and Australia, whose foreign policy has followed a similar historical trend. Close political contact is maintained between the two countries, with free trade agreements and travel arrangements that allow citizens to visit, live and work in both countries without restrictions. Currently over 500,000 New Zealanders live in Australia and 65,000 Australians live in New Zealand.
New Zealand has a strong presence among the Pacific Island countries. A large proportion of New Zealand's aid goes to these countries and many Pacific people migrate to New Zealand for employment. Permanent migration is regulated under the 1970 Samoan Quota Scheme and the 2002 Pacific Access Category, which allow up to 1,100 Samoan nationals and up to 750 other Pacific Islanders respectively to become permanent New Zealand residents each year. A seasonal workers scheme for temporary migration was introduced in 2007 and in 2009 about 8,000 Pacific Islanders were employed under it. New Zealand is involved in the Pacific Islands Forum, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Regional Forum (including the East Asia Summit). New Zealand is also a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Five Powers Defence Arrangements.
The New Zealand Defence Force has three branches: the Royal New Zealand Navy, the New Zealand Army and the Royal New Zealand Air Force. New Zealand's national defence needs are modest due to the unlikelihood of direct attack, although it does have a global presence. The country fought in both world wars, with notable campaigns in Gallipoli, Crete, El Alamein and Cassino. The Gallipoli campaign played an important part in fostering New Zealand's national identity and strengthened the ANZAC tradition it shares with Australia. According to Mary Edmond-Paul, "World War I had left scars on New Zealand society, with nearly 18,500 in total dying as a result of the war, more than 41,000 wounded, and others affected emotionally, out of an overseas fighting force of about 103,000 and a population of just over a million." New Zealand also played key parts in the naval Battle of the River Plate and the Battle of Britain air campaign. During World War II, the United States had more than 400,000 American military personnel stationed in New Zealand.
In addition to Vietnam and the two world wars, New Zealand fought in the Korean War, the Second Boer War, the Malayan Emergency, the Gulf War and the Afghanistan War. It has contributed forces to several regional and global peacekeeping missions, such as those in Cyprus, Somalia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Sinai, Angola, Cambodia, the Iran–Iraq border, Bougainville, East Timor, and the Solomon Islands. New Zealand also sent a unit of army engineers to help rebuild Iraqi infrastructure for one year during the Iraq War.
Local government and external territoriesEdit
- Main article: Local government in New Zealand
The early European settlers divided New Zealand into provinces, which had a degree of autonomy. Due to financial pressures and the desire to consolidate railways, education, land sales and other policies, government was centralised and the provinces were abolished in 1876. As a result, New Zealand now has no separately represented subnational entities. The provinces are remembered in regional public holidays and sporting rivalries.
Since 1876, various councils have administered local areas under legislation determined by the central government. In 1989, the government reorganised local government into the current two-tier structure of regional councils and territorial authorities. The 249 municipalities that existed in 1975 have now been consolidated into 67 territorial authorities and 11 regional councils. The regional councils' role is to regulate "the natural environment with particular emphasis on resource management", while territorial authorities are responsible for sewage, water, local roads, building consents and other local matters. Five of the territorial councils are unitary authorities and also act as regional councils. The territorial authorities consist of 13 city councils, 53 district councils, and the Chatham Islands Council. While officially the Chatham Islands Council is not a unitary authority, it undertakes many functions of a regional council.
The Realm of New Zealand is one of 16 realms within the commonwealth and comprises New Zealand, Tokelau, the Ross Dependency, the Cook Islands and Niue. The Cook Islands and Niue are self-governing states in free association with New Zealand. The New Zealand Parliament cannot pass legislation for these countries, but with their consent can act on behalf of them in foreign affairs and defence. Tokelau is a non-self-governing territory that uses the New Zealand flag and anthem, but is administered by a council of three elders (one from each Tokelauan atoll). The Ross Dependency is New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica, where it operates the Scott Base research facility. New Zealand citizenship law treats all parts of the realm equally, so most people born in New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau and the Ross Dependency before 2006 are New Zealand citizens. Further conditions apply for those born from 2006 onwards.
- Main article: Environment of New Zealand
New Zealand is made up of two main islands and a number of smaller islands, located near the centre of the water hemisphere. The main North and South Islands are separated by the Cook Strait, Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoff wide at its narrowest point. Besides the North and South Islands, the five largest inhabited islands are Stewart Island, the Chatham Islands, Great Barrier Island (in the Hauraki Gulf), d'Urville Island (in the Marlborough Sounds) and Waiheke Island (about Template:Convert/LoffAonDbSoff from central Auckland). The country's islands lie between latitudes 29° and 53°S, and longitudes 165° and 176°E.
New Zealand is long (over Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoff along its north-north-east axis) and narrow (a maximum width of Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoff), with approximately Template:Convert/LoffAonDbSoff of coastline and a total land area of Template:Convert/km2 Due to its far-flung outlying islands and long coastline, the country has extensive marine resources. Its Exclusive Economic Zone, one of the largest in the world, covers more than 15 times its land area.
The South Island is the largest land mass of New Zealand, and is divided along its length by the Southern Alps. There are 18 peaks over Template:Convert/m, the highest of which is Aoraki/Mount Cook at Template:Convert/m. Fiordland's steep mountains and deep fiords record the extensive ice age glaciation of this south-western corner of the South Island. The North Island is less mountainous but is marked by volcanism. The highly active Taupo volcanic zone has formed a large volcanic plateau, punctuated by the North Island's highest mountain, Mount Ruapehu (Template:Convert/m). The plateau also hosts the country's largest lake, Lake Taupo, nestled in the caldera of one of the world's most active supervolcanoes.
The country owes its varied topography, and perhaps even its emergence above the waves, to the dynamic boundary it straddles between the Pacific and Indo-Australian Plates. New Zealand is part of Zealandia, a microcontinent nearly half the size of Australia that gradually submerged after breaking away from the Gondwanan supercontinent. About 25 million years ago, a shift in plate tectonic movements began to contort and crumple the region. This is now most evident in the Southern Alps, formed by compression of the crust beside the Alpine Fault. Elsewhere the plate boundary involves the subduction of one plate under the other, producing the Puysegur Trench to the south, the Hikurangi Trench east of the North Island, and the Kermadec and Tonga Trenches further north.
- Main article: Climate of New Zealand
New Zealand has a mild and temperate maritime climate with mean annual temperatures ranging from 10°C in the south to 16°C in the north. Historical maxima and minima are 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) in Rangiora, Canterbury and −21.6 °C (−6.9 °F) in Ophir, Otago. Conditions vary sharply across regions from extremely wet on the West Coast of the South Island to almost semi-arid in Central Otago and the Mackenzie Basin of inland Canterbury and subtropical in Northland. Of the seven largest cities, Christchurch is the driest, receiving on average only Template:Convert/mm of rain per year and Auckland the wettest, receiving almost twice that amount. Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch all receive a yearly average in excess of 2,000 hours of sunshine. The southern and south-western parts of the South Island have a cooler and cloudier climate, with around 1,400–1,600 hours; the northern and north-eastern parts of the South Island are the sunniest areas of the country and receive approximately 2,400–2,500 hours.
- Main article: Biodiversity of New Zealand
New Zealand's geographic isolation for 80 million years and island biogeography is responsible for the country's unique species of flora and fauna. They have either evolved from Gondwanan wildlife or the few organisms that have managed to reach the shores flying, swimming or being carried across the sea. About 82 percent of New Zealand's indigenous vascular plants[n 9] are endemic, covering 1,944 species across 65 genera and includes a single family. The two main types of forest are those dominated by broadleaf trees with emergent podocarps, or by southern beech in cooler climates. The remaining vegetation types consist of grasslands, the majority of which are tussock.
Before the arrival of humans an estimated 80 percent of the land was covered in forest, with only high alpine, wet, infertile and volcanic areas without trees. Massive deforestation occurred after humans arrived, with around half the forest cover lost to fire after Polynesian settlement. Much of the remaining forest fell after European settlement, being logged or cleared to make room for pastoral farming, leaving forest occupying only 23 percent of the land.
The forests were dominated by birds, and the lack of mammalian predators led to some like the kiwi, kakapo and takahē evolving flightlessness. The arrival of humans, associated changes to habitat, and the introduction of rats, ferrets and other mammals led to the extinction of many bird species, including large birds like the moa and Haast's eagle.
Other indigenous animals are represented by reptiles (tuataras, skinks and geckos), frogs, spiders (katipo), insects (weta) and snails. Some, such as the wrens and tuatara, are so unique that they have been called living fossils. Three species of bats (one since extinct) were the only sign of native land mammals in New Zealand until the 2006 discovery of bones from a unique, mouse-sized land mammal. Marine mammals however are abundant, with almost half the world's cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) and large numbers of fur seals reported in New Zealand waters. Many seabirds breed in New Zealand, a third of them unique to the country. More penguin species are found in New Zealand than in any other country.
Since human arrival almost half of the country's vertebrate species have become extinct, including at least fifty one birds, three frogs, three lizards, one freshwater fish, four plant species, and one bat. Others are endangered or have had their range severely reduced. However New Zealand conservationists have pioneered several methods to help threatened wildlife recover, including island sanctuaries, pest control, wildlife translocation, fostering, and ecological restoration of islands and other selected areas.
- Main article: Economy of New Zealand
New Zealand has a modern, prosperous and developed market economy with an estimated gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita of roughly US$28,250.[n 10] The New Zealand dollar, informally known as the "Kiwi dollar", is the currency of New Zealand. It also circulates in the Cook Islands (see Cook Islands dollar), Niue, Tokelau, and the Pitcairn Islands. New Zealand was ranked the 3rd "most developed" country in 2010 according to the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index, 4th in the 2011 Index of Economic Freedom published by The Heritage Foundation.
Historically, extractive industries have contributed strongly to New Zealand's economy, focussing at different times on sealing, whaling, flax, gold, kauri gum, and native timber. With the development of refrigerated shipping in the 1880s meat and dairy products were exported to Britain, a trade which provided the basis for strong economic growth in New Zealand. High demand for agricultural products from the United Kingdom and the United States helped New Zealanders achieve higher living standards than both Australia and Western Europe in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1973 New Zealand's export market was reduced when the United Kingdom joined the European Community and other compounding factors, such as the 1973 oil and 1979 energy crisis, led to a severe economic depression. Living standards in New Zealand fell behind those of Australia and Western Europe, and by 1982 New Zealand had the lowest per-capita income of all the developed nations surveyed by the World Bank. Since 1984, successive governments engaged in major macroeconomic restructuring (known first as Rogernomics and then Ruthanasia), rapidly transforming New Zealand from a highly protectionist economy to a liberalised free-trade economy.
Unemployment peaked above 10 percent in 1991 and 1992, following the 1987 share market crash, but eventually fell a record low of 3.4 percent in 2007 (ranking fifth from twenty-seven comparable OECD nations). The global financial crisis that followed however had a major impact on New Zealand with the GDP shrinking for five consecutive quarters, the longest recession in over thirty years, and unemployment rising back to 7 percent in late 2009. New Zealand has experienced a series of "brain drains" since the 1970s that still continue today. Nearly one quarter of highly-skilled workers live overseas, most in Australia and Britain, the most from any developed nation. In recent years, however, a "brain gain" has brought in educated professionals from Europe and lesser developed countries.
New Zealand is heavily dependent on international trade, particularly in agricultural products. Exports account for a high 24 percent of its output, making New Zealand vulnerable to international commodity prices and global economic slowdowns. Its principal export industries are agriculture, horticulture, fishing, forestry and mining, which make up about half of the country's exports. Its major export partners are Australia, United States, Japan, China, and the United Kingdom. On 7 April 2008, New Zealand and China signed the New Zealand China Free Trade Agreement, the first such agreement China has signed with a developed country. The service sector is the largest sector in the economy, followed by manufacturing and construction and then farming and raw material extraction. Tourism plays a significant role in New Zealand's economy, contributing $15.0 billion to New Zealand’s total GDP and supporting 9.6 percent of the total workforce in 2010. International visitors to New Zealand increased by 3.1 percent in the year to October 2010 and are expected to increase at a rate of 2.5 percent annually up to 2015.
Wool was New Zealand’s major agricultural export during the late 19th century. Even as late as the 1960s it made up over a third of all export revenues, but since then its price has steadily dropped relative to other commodities and wool is no longer profitable for many farmers. In contrast dairy farming increased, with the number of dairy cows doubling between 1990 and 2007, to become New Zealand's largest export earner. In the year to June 2009, dairy products accounted for 21 percent ($9.1 billion) of total merchandise exports, and the country's largest company, Fonterra, controls almost one-third of the international dairy trade. Other agricultural exports in 2009 were meat 13.2 percent, wool 6.3 percent, fruit 3.5 percent and fishing 3.3 percent. New Zealand's wine industry has followed a similar trend to dairy, the number of vineyards doubling over the same period, overtaking wool exports for the first time in 2007.
In 2008, oil, gas and coal generated approximately 69 percent of New Zealand's gross energy supply and 31 percent was generated from renewable energy, primarily hydroelectric power and geothermal power. New Zealand's transport network includes Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoff of roads, worth 23 billion dollars, and Template:Convert/LoffAoffDbSoff of railway lines. Most major cities and towns are linked by bus services, although the private car is the predominant mode of transport. The railways were privatised in 1993, then re-purchased by the government in 2004 and vested into a state owned enterprise. Railways run the length of the country, although most lines now carry freight rather than passengers. Most international visitors arrive via air and New Zealand has seven international airports, although currently[update] only the Auckland and Christchurch airports connect directly with countries other than Australia or Fiji. The New Zealand Post Office had a monopoly over telecommunications until 1989 when Telecom New Zealand was formed, initially as a state-owned enterprise and then privatised in 1990. Telecom still owns the majority of the telecommunications infrastructure, but competition from other providers has increased.
- Main article: Demographics of New Zealand
The population of New Zealand is approximately 4.4 million. New Zealand is a predominantly urban country, with 72 percent of the population living in 16 main urban areas and 53 percent living in the four largest cities of Auckland, Christchurch, Wellington, and Hamilton. New Zealand cities generally rank highly on international livability measures. For instance, in 2010 Auckland was ranked the world's 4th most livable city and Wellington the 12th by the Mercer Quality of Life Survey
The life expectancy of a New Zealand child born in 2008 was 82.4 years for females, and 78.4 years for males. Life expectancy at birth is forecast to increase from 80 years to 85 years in 2050 and infant mortality is expected to decline. In 2050 the population is forecast to reach 5.3 million, the median age to rise from 36 years to 43 years and the percentage of people 60 years of age and older to rise from 18 percent to 29 percent.
Ethnicity and immigrationEdit
- Main article: New Zealanders
In the 2006 census, 67.6 percent identified ethnically as European and 14.6 percent as Māori. Other major ethnic groups include Asian (9.2 percent) and Pacific peoples (6.9 percent), while 11.1 percent identified themselves simply as a "New Zealander" (or similar) and 1 percent identified with other ethnicities.[n 11] This contrasts with 1961, when the census reported that the population of New Zealand was 92 percent European and 7 percent Māori, with Asian and Pacific minorities sharing the remaining 1 percent. While the demonym for a New Zealand citizen is New Zealander, the informal "Kiwi" is commonly used both internationally and by locals. The Māori loanword Pākehā usually refers to New Zealanders of European descent, although some reject this appellation, and some Māori use it to refer to all non-Polynesian New Zealanders.
The Māori were the first people to reach New Zealand, followed by the early European settlers. Following colonisation, immigrants were predominantly from Britain, Ireland and Australia due to restrictive policies similar to the white Australian policies. There was also significant Dutch, Dalmatian, Italian, and German immigration together with indirect European immigration through Australia, North America, South America and South Africa. Following the Great Depression policies were relaxed and migrant diversity increased. In 2009–10, an annual target of 45,000–50,000 permanent residence approvals was set by the New Zealand Immigration Service—more than one new migrant for every 100 New Zealand residents. Twenty-three percent of New Zealand's population were born overseas, most of whom live in the Auckland region. While most have still come from the United Kingdom and Ireland (29 percent), immigration from East Asia (mostly mainland China, but with substantial numbers also from Korea, Taiwan, Japan, and Hong Kong) is rapidly increasing the number of people from those countries. The number of fee-paying international students increased sharply in the late 1990s, with more than 20,000 studying in public tertiary institutions in 2002.
English is the predominant language in New Zealand, spoken by 98 percent of the population. New Zealand English is similar to Australian English and many speakers from the Northern Hemisphere are unable to tell the accents apart. After the Second World War, Māori were discouraged from speaking their own language (te reo Māori) in schools and workplaces and it existed as a community language only in a few remote areas. It has recently undergone a process of revitalisation, being declared one of New Zealand's official languages in 1987, and is spoken by 4.1 percent of the population. There are now Māori language immersion schools and two Māori Television channels, the only nationwide television channels to have the majority of their prime-time content delivered in Māori. Many places have officially been given dual Maori and English names in recent years. Samoan is the most widely spoken non-official language (2.3 percent),[n 12] followed by French, Hindi, Yue and Northern Chinese.[n 13] New Zealand Sign Language is used by approximately 28,000 people and was made New Zealand's third official language in 2006.
Education and religionEdit
- Main article: Education in New Zealand
Primary and secondary schooling is compulsory for children aged 6 to 16, with the majority attending from the age of 5. There are 13 school years and attending public schools is free. New Zealand has an adult literacy rate of 99 percent, and over half of the population aged 15 to 29 hold a tertiary qualification.[n 14] In the adult population 14.2 percent have a bachelor's degree or higher, 30.4 percent have some form of secondary qualification as their highest qualification and 22.4 percent have no formal qualification.
Christianity is the predominant religion in New Zealand. In the 2006 Census, 55.6 percent of the population identified themselves as Christians, while another 34.7 percent indicated that they had no religion (up from 29.6 percent in 2001) and around 4 percent affiliated with other religions.[n 15] The main Christian denominations are Anglicanism, Roman Catholicism, Presbyterianism and Methodism. There are also significant numbers of Christians who identify themselves with Pentecostal, Baptist, and Latter-day Saint churches and the New Zealand-based Ratana church has adherents among Māori. According to census figures, other significant minority religions include Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam.
| List of cities in New Zealand|
|Cities of New Zealand|
|Rank||City Name||Region||Pop||Rank||City Name||Region||Pop.|
|1||Auckland||Auckland Region||Template:NZ population data||7||Dunedin||Otago Region||Template:NZ population data|
|2||Christchurch||Canterbury Region||Template:NZ population data||8||Palmerston North||Manawatu-Wanganui Region||Template:NZ population data|
|3||Wellington||Wellington Region||Template:NZ population data||9||Nelson||Nelson||Template:NZ population data|
|4||Hamilton Urban Area||Waikato Region||Template:NZ population data||10||Rotorua||Bay of Plenty Region||Template:NZ population data|
|5||Napier-Hastings Urban Area||Hawke's Bay Region||Template:NZ population data||11||New Plymouth||Taranaki Region||Template:NZ population data|
|6||Tauranga||Bay of Plenty Region||Template:NZ population data||12||Whangarei||Northland Region||Template:NZ population data|
- Main article: Culture of New Zealand
Early Māori adapted the tropically-based east Polynesian culture in line with the challenges associated with a larger and more diverse environment, eventually developing their own distinctive culture. Social organisation was largely communal with families (whanau), sub-tribes (hapu) and tribes (iwi) ruled by a chief (rangatira) whose position was subject to the community's approval. The British and Irish immigrants brought aspects of their own culture to New Zealand and also influenced Māori culture, particularly with the introduction of Christianity. However, Māori still regard their allegiance to tribal groups as a vital part of their identity, and Māori kinship roles resemble those of other Polynesian peoples. More recently American, Australian, Asian and other European cultures have exerted influence on New Zealand. Non-Māori Polynesian cultures are also apparent, with Pasifika, the world's largest Polynesian festival, now an annual event in Auckland.
The largely rural life in early New Zealand led to the image of New Zealanders being rugged, industrious problem solvers. Modesty was expected and enforced through the "tall poppy syndrome", where high achievers received harsh criticism. At the time New Zealand was not known as an intellectual country. From the early 20th century until the late 1960s Māori culture was suppressed by the attempted assimilation of Māori into British New Zealanders. In the 1960s, as higher education became more available and cities expanded urban culture began to dominate. Even though the majority of the population now lives in cities, much of New Zealand's art, literature, film and humour has rural themes.
- Main article: New Zealand art
As part of the resurgence of Māori culture, the traditional crafts of carving and weaving are now more widely practiced and Māori artists are increasing in number and influence. Most Māori carvings feature human figures, generally with three fingers and either a natural-looking, detailed head or a grotesque head. Surface patterns consisting of spirals, ridges, notches and fish scales decorate most carvings. The pre-eminent Māori architecture consisted of carved meeting houses (wharenui) decorated with symbolic carvings and illustrations. These buildings were originally designed to be constantly rebuilt, changing and adapting to different whims or needs.
Māori decorated the white wood of buildings, canoes and cenotaphs using red (a mixture of red ochre and shark fat) and black (made from soot) paint and painted pictures of birds, reptiles and other designs on cave walls. Māori tattoos (moko) consisting of coloured soot mixed with gum were cut into the flesh with a bone chisel. Since European arrival paintings and photographs have been dominated by landscapes, originally not as works of art but as factual portrayals of New Zealand. Portraits of Māori were also common, with early painters often portraying them as "noble savages", exotic beauties or friendly natives. The country's isolation delayed the influence of European artistic trends allowing local artists to developed their own distinctive style of regionalism. During the 1960s and 70s many artists combined traditional Māori and Western techniques, creating unique art forms. New Zealand art and craft has gradually achieved an international audience, with exhibitions in the Venice Biennale in 2001 and the "Paradise Now" exhibition in New York in 2004.
Māori cloaks are made of fine flax fibre and patterned with black, red and white triangles, diamonds and other geometric shapes. Greenstone was fashioned into earrings and necklaces, with the most well-known design being the hei-tiki, a distorted human figure sitting cross-legged with its head tilted to the side. Europeans brought English fashion etiquette to New Zealand, and until the 1950s most people dressed up for social occasions. Standards have since relaxed and New Zealand fashion has received a reputation for being casual, practical and lackluster. However, the local fashion industry has grown significantly since 2000, doubling exports and increasing from a handful to about 50 established labels, with some labels gaining international recognition.
- Main article: Literature of New Zealand
Māori quickly adopted writing as a means of sharing ideas, and many of their oral stories and poems were converted to the written form. Most early English literature was obtained from Britain and it was not until the 1950s when local publishing outlets increased that New Zealand literature started to become widely known. Although still largely influenced by global trends (modernism) and events (the Great Depression), writers in the 1930s began to develop stories increasingly focused on their experiences in New Zealand. During this period literature changed from a journalistic activity to a more academic pursuit. Participation in the world wars gave some New Zealand writers a new perspective on New Zealand culture and with the post-war expansion of universities local literature flourished.
New Zealand music has been influenced by blues, jazz, country, rock and roll and hip hop, with many of these genres given a unique New Zealand interpretation. Māori developed traditional chants and songs from their ancient South-East Asian origins, and after centuries of isolation created a unique "monotonous" and "doleful" sound. Flutes and trumpets were used as musical instruments or as signaling devices during war or special occasions. Early settlers brought over their ethnic music, with brass bands and choral music being popular, and musicians began touring New Zealand in the 1860s. Pipe bands became widespread during the early 20th century. The New Zealand recording industry began to develop from 1940 onwards and many New Zealand musicians have obtained success in Britain and the USA. Some artists release Māori language songs and the Māori tradition-based art of kapa haka (song and dance) has made a resurgence.
Radio first arrived in New Zealand in 1922 and television in 1960, while the number of New Zealand films significantly increased during the 1970s. In 1978 the New Zealand Film Commission started assisting local film-makers and many films attained a world audience, some receiving international acknowledgement. Deregulation in the 1980s saw a sudden increase in the numbers of radio and television stations. New Zealand television primarily broadcasts American and British programming, along with a large number of Australian and local shows. The country's diverse scenery and compact size, plus government incentives, have encouraged some producers to film big budget movies in New Zealand. The New Zealand media industry is dominated by a small number of companies, most of which are foreign-owned, although the state retains ownership of some television and radio stations. Between 2003 and 2008, Reporters Without Borders consistently ranked New Zealand's press freedom in the top twenty.
- Main article: Sport in New Zealand
Most of the major sporting codes played in New Zealand have English origins. Golf, netball, tennis and cricket are the four top participatory sports, soccer is the most popular among young people and rugby union attracts the most spectators. Victorious rugby tours to Australia and the United Kingdom in the late 1880s and the early 1900s played an early role in instilling a national identity, although the sport's influence has since declined. Horse racing was also a popular spectator sport and became part of the "Rugby, Racing and Beer" culture during the 1960s. Māori participation in European sports was particularly evident in rugby and the country's team performs a haka (traditional Māori challenge) before international matches.
New Zealand has competitive international teams in rugby union, netball, cricket, rugby league, and softball and has traditionally done well in triathlons, rowing, yachting and cycling. The country has performed well on a medals-to-population ratio at Olympic Games and Commonwealth Games. New Zealand is known for its extreme sports, adventure tourism and strong mountaineering tradition. Other outdoor pursuits such as cycling, fishing, swimming, running, tramping, canoeing, hunting, snowsports and surfing are also popular. The Polynesian sport of waka ama racing has increased in popularity and is now an international sport involving teams from all over the Pacific.
- ↑ "New Zealand's National Anthems". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. http://www.mch.govt.nz/nz-identity-heritage/national-anthems. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- ↑ "Protocol for using New Zealand's National Anthems". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. http://www.mch.govt.nz/nz-identity-heritage/national-anthems. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "QuickStats About Culture and Identity: Languages spoken". Statistics New Zealand. March 2006. http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2006CensusHomePage/QuickStats/quickstats-about-a-subject/culture-and-identity/languages-spoken.aspx. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
- ↑ Didham, Robert; Potter, Deb (April 2005). Understanding and Working with Ethnicity Data. Statistics New Zealand. ISBN 9780478315059. Archived from the original on 25 November 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071125133402/http://www.stats.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/F9967810-E15B-4D28-A8E3-DBAD6B80954C/0/UnderstandingWorkingEthnicityData.pdf. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- ↑ "The New Zealand Land Cover Database". New Zealand Land Cover Database 2. New Zealand Ministry for the Environment. 1 July 2009. http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/land/land-cover-dbase/index.html. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- ↑ "National Population Estimates: December 2010 quarter". Statistics New Zealand. 14 February 2010. http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/population/estimates_and_projections/NationalPopulationEstimates_HOTPDec10qtr/Commentary.aspx. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
- ↑ "QuickStats About New Zealand's Population and Dwellings: Population counts". 2006 Census. Statistics New Zealand. http://stats.govt.nz/Census/2006CensusHomePage/QuickStats/quickstats-about-a-subject/nzs-population-and-dwellings/population-counts.aspx. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 "New Zealand". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2011&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=196&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=28&pr.y=6. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- ↑ "Equality and inequality: Gini index". Human Development Report 2009. United Nations Development Programme. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/indicators/161.html. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- ↑ "International Human Development Indicators – New Zealand". United Nations. 2010. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/NZL.html. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- ↑ King 2003, p. 41.
- ↑ Hay, Maclagan, and Gordon, p. 72.
- ↑ Wilson, John (March 2009). "European discovery of New Zealand – Abel Tasman". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/european-discovery-of-new-zealand/2. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
- ↑ Wilson, John (September 2007). "Tasman’s achievement". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/european-discovery-of-new-zealand/3. Retrieved 16 February 2008.
- ↑ Mackay, Duncan (1986). "The Search For The Southern Land". In Fraser, B. The New Zealand Book Of Events. Auckland: Reed Methuen. pp. 52–54.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Mein Smith 2005, p. 6.
- ↑ Brunner, Thomas (1851). The Great Journey: an expedition to explore the interior of the Middle Island, New Zealand, 1846-8. Royal Geographic Society. http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/BruJour-fig-BruJour_P001a.html.
- ↑ McKinnon, Malcolm (November 2009). "Place names – Naming the country and the main islands". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/place-names/1. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
- ↑ "Confusion over NZ islands' names". BBC News. 22 April 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8011846.stm.
- ↑ May Eriksen, Alanah (25 April 2009). "Name quest unveils historic titles". The New Zealand Herald. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10568595.
- ↑ Davison, Isaac (22 April 2009). "North and South Islands officially nameless". The New Zealand Herald. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10567873.
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- ↑ Clark, Ross (1994). "Moriori and Māori: The Linguistic Evidence". In Sutton, Douglas. The Origins of the First New Zealanders. Auckland: Auckland University Press. pp. 123–135.
- ↑ Davis, Denise (September 2007). "The impact of new arrivals". Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/moriori/4. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- ↑ Davis, Denise; Solomon, Māui (March 2009). "'Moriori – The impact of new arrivals'". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/moriori/4. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 Mein Smith 2005, p. 23.
- ↑ Salmond, Anne. Two Worlds: First Meetings Between Maori and Europeans 1642–1772. Auckland: Penguin Books. p. 82. ISBN 0670832987.
- ↑ King 2003, p. 122.
- ↑ Fitzpatrick, John (2004). "Food, warfare and the impact of Atlantic capitalism in Aotearo/New Zealand". Australasian Political Studies Association Conference: APSA 2004 Conference Papers. https://www.adelaide.edu.au/apsa/docs_papers/Others/Fitzpatrick.pdf.
- ↑ Brailsford, Barry (1972). Arrows of Plague. Wellington: Hick Smith and Sons. p. 35. ISBN 0456010602.
- ↑ Wagstrom, Thor (2005). "Broken Tongues and Foreign Hearts". In Brock, Peggy. Indigenous Peoples and Religious Change. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 71 and 73. ISBN 9789004138995.
- ↑ Lange, Raeburn (1999). May the people live: a history of Māori health development 1900–1920. Auckland University Press. p. 18. ISBN 9781869402143.
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 Rutherford, James (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Busby, James". In McLintock, Alexander. from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/busby-james/1. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- ↑ McLintock, Alexander, ed (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Sir George Gipps". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/gipps-sir-george/1. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- ↑ 37.0 37.1 Wilson, John (March 2009). "Government and nation – The origins of nationhood". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/government-and-nation/1. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- ↑ McLintock, Alexander, ed (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Settlement from 1840 to 1852". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/land-settlement/3. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- ↑ Foster, Bernard (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Akaroa, French Settlement At". In McLintock, Alexander. from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/akaroa-french-settlement-at/1. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- ↑ Simpson, K (September 2010). "Hobson, William – Biography". In McLintock, Alexander. from the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/1h29/1. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- ↑ Phillips, Jock (April 2010). "British immigration and the New Zealand Company". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/history-of-immigration/3. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- ↑ "Crown colony era – the Governor-General". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. March 2009. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/politics/history-of-the-governor-general/crown-colony-era. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- ↑ 43.0 43.1 43.2 Wilson, John (March 2009). "Government and nation – The constitution". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/government-and-nation/3. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- ↑ Temple, Philip (1980). Wellington Yesterday. John McIndoe. ISBN 0-86868-012-5.
- ↑ "New Zealand's 19th-century wars – overview". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. April 2009. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/new-zealands-19th-century-wars/introduction. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- ↑ Wilson., John (March 2009). "History – Liberal to Labour". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/history/5. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- ↑ Boxall, Peter; Haynes, Peter (1997). "Strategy and Trade Union Effectiveness in a Neo-liberal Environment" (PDF). British Journal of Industrial Relations 35 (4): 567–591. doi:10.1111/1467-8543.00069. http://www.gurn.info/en/topics/global-trade-union-strategies-union-renewal/organizational-innovation-and-change/industrial-relations-and-labour-regulations-affecting-unions2019-structure/strategy-and-trade-union-effectiveness-in-a-neo-liberal-environment.
- ↑ "War and Society". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war-and-society. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- ↑ Easton, Brian (April 2010). "Economic history – Interwar years and the great depression". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/economic-history/7. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- ↑ Derby, Mark (May 2010). "Strikes and labour disputes – Wars, depression and first Labour government". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/strikes-and-labour-disputes/6. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- ↑ Easton, Brian (November 2010). "Economic history – Great boom, 1935–1966". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/economic-history/9. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- ↑ Keane, Basil (November 2010). "Te Māori i te ohanga – Māori in the economy – Urbanisation". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/te-maori-i-te-ohanga-maori-in-the-economy/6. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- ↑ Royal, Te Ahukaramū (March 2009). "Māori – Urbanisation and renaissance". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/maori/5. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- ↑ "Queen and New Zealand". The British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchAndCommonwealth/NewZealand/NewZealand.aspx. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- ↑ 55.0 55.1 55.2 55.3 "Factsheet – New Zealand – Political Forces". The Economist. 15 February 2005. http://www.economist.com/countries/NewZealand/profile.cfm?folder=Profile-Political%20Forces. Retrieved 4 August 2009.
- ↑ "New Zealand Legislation: Royal Titles Act 1974". New Zealand Government. February 1974. http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1974/0001/latest/DLM411814.html. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- ↑ "The Governor General of New Zealand". Official website of the Governor General. http://www.gg.govt.nz/. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
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- ↑ Harris, Bruce (2009). "Replacement of the Royal Prerogative in New Zealand". New Zealand Universities Law Review 23: 285–314. http://www.britannica.com/bps/additionalcontent/18/41876855/REPLACEMENT-OF-THE-ROYAL-PREROGATIVE-IN-NEW-ZEALAND.
- ↑ 60.0 60.1 "The Reserve Powers". Governor General. http://www.gg.govt.nz/role/powers.htm. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
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- ↑ "How Parliament works: People in Parliament". New Zealand Parliament. August 2006. http://www.parliament.nz/en-NZ/AboutParl/HowPWorks/People/0/a/f/0afe831bd86b4c03b92cc769806bdb3b.htm#_Toc139097923. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- ↑ Wilson, John (November 2010). "Government and nation – System of government". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/government-and-nation/4. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- ↑ "Cabinet Manual: Cabinet". Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. 2008. http://www.cabinetmanual.cabinetoffice.govt.nz/5.2. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
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- ↑ "The Current Chief Justice". Courts of New Zealand. http://www.courtsofnz.govt.nz/about/judges/current-chief. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
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- ↑ Template:Cite new
- ↑ McLintock, Alexander, ed (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "External Relations". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/history-constitutional/10. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- ↑ "Michael Joseph Savage". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. July 2010. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/people/michael-joseph-savage-biography. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- ↑ Patman, Robert (2005). "Globalisation, Sovereignty, and the Transformation of New Zealand Foreign Policy" (PDF). Working Paper 21/05. Centre for Strategic Studies, Victoria University of Wellington. p. 8. http://www.victoria.ac.nz/css/docs/Working_Papers/WP21.pdf. Retrieved 12 March 2007.
- ↑ "Department Of External Affairs: Security Treaty between Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America". Australian Government. September 1951. http://www.australianpolitics.com/foreign/anzus/anzus-treaty.shtml. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- ↑ "The Vietnam War". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. June 2008. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/vietnam-war. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- ↑ "Sinking the Rainbow Warrior – nuclear-free New Zealand". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. August 2008. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/politics/nuclear-free-new-zealand/rainbow-warrior. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- ↑ "Nuclear-free legislation – nuclear-free New Zealand". New Zealand History Online. August 2008. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/politics/nuclear-free-new-zealand/nuclear-free-zone. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- ↑ Lange, David (1990). Nuclear Free: The New Zealand Way. New Zealand: Penguin Books. ISBN 0140145192.
- ↑ "Australia in brief". Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. http://www.dfat.gov.au/aib/history.html. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
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- ↑ Bertram, Geoff (April 2010). "South Pacific economic relations – Aid, remittances and tourism". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/south-pacific-economic-relations/4. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- ↑ Howes, Stephen (November 2010). "Making migration work: Lessons from New Zealand". Development Policy Centre. http://devpolicy.org/making-migration-work-lessons-from-new-zealand/. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
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- ↑ "Welcome to NZDF". New Zealand Defence Force. http://www.nzdf.mil.nz/default.htm. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
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- ↑ "The Battle for Crete". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. May 2010. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/the-battle-for-crete. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- ↑ "El Alamein – The North African Campaign". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. May-2009. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/the-north-african-campaign/el-alamein. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- ↑ Holmes, Richard (September 2010). "World War Two: The Battle of Monte Cassino". http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/battle_cassino_01.shtml. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- ↑ "Gallipoli stirred new sense of national identity says Clark". New Zealand Herald. April 2005. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10122323.
- ↑ Prideaux, Bruce (2007). Ryan, Chris. ed. Battlefield tourism: history, place and interpretation. Elsevier Science. p. 18. ISBN 978-0080453620.
- ↑ Burke, Arthur. "The Spirit of ANZAC". ANZAC Day Commemoration Committee. http://www.anzacday.org.au/spirit/spirit2.html. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- ↑ Mary Edmond-Paul (2008). Lighted windows: critical essays on Robin Hyde . Otago University Press. p.77. ISBN 1877372587
- ↑ "New Zealand and the Battle of River Plate". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Foreign-Relations/Latin-America/News/0-river-plate.php. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- ↑ "Airmen from New Zealand who took part in the Battle of Britain". The Battle of Britain London Monument. http://www.bbm.org.uk/pilots-nz.htm. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
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- ↑ "Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs Background Note: New Zealand". US Department of State. August 2010. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35852.htm. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
- ↑ "South African War 1899–1902". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. February 2009. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/the-south-african-boer-war/introduction. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- ↑ "NZ and the Malayan Emergency". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. August 2010. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/the-malayan-emergency. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- ↑ "New Zealand Defence Force Overseas Operations". New Zealand Defence Force. January 2008. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080125104529/http://www.nzdf.mil.nz/operations/default.htm. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- ↑ 101.0 101.1 "New Zealand's Nine Provinces (1853–76)". Friends of the Hocken Collections. March 2000. http://www.library.otago.ac.nz/pdf/hoc_fr_bulletins/31_bulletin.pdf. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- ↑ McLintock, Alexander, ed (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Provincial Divergencies". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/provinces-and-provincial-districts/3. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
- ↑ "Public holidays". New Zealand Department of Labour. http://www.dol.govt.nz/er/holidaysandleave/publicholidays/index.asp. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- ↑ "Overview – regional rugby". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. September 2010. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/culture/regional-rugby/overview. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- ↑ Dollery, Brian; Keogh, Ciaran; Crase, Lin (2007). "Alternatives to Amalgamation in Australian Local Government: Lessons from the New Zealand Experience". Sustaining Regions 6 (1): 50–69. http://www.anzrsai.org/system/files/f8/f9/f39/f40/o186//Dollery%20sustaining%20regions%20article.pdf.
- ↑ 106.0 106.1 106.2 Sancton, Andrew (2000). Merger mania: the assault on local government. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 84. ISBN 0773521631.
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For further detail within East Asia: "Culture and identity – Birthplace". 2006 Census Population and dwellings tables. Statistics New Zealand. http://www.stats.govt.nz/methods_and_services/access-data/TableBuilder/2006-census-pop-dwellings-tables/culture-and-identity/birthplace.aspx. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
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- ↑ "Waitangi Tribunal claim – Māori Language Week". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. July 2010. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/culture/maori-language-week/waitangi-tribunal-claim. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- ↑ "Māori Television Launches 100 percent Māori Language Channel". Māori Television. http://media.maoritelevision.com/default.aspx?tabid=211&pid=367. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- ↑ 243.0 243.1 243.2 "2006 Census Data – QuickStats About Culture and Identity – Tables" (XLS). 2006 Census. Statistics New Zealand. http://www.stats.govt.nz/~/media/statistics/publications/census/2006-reports/quickstats-subject/culture-identity/quickstats-about-culture-and-identity-tables.aspx. Retrieved 30 April 2010. In tables 28 (Religious Affiliation) and 19 (Languages Spoken by Ethnic Group)
- ↑ "New Zealand Sign Language Act 2006". Office for Disability Issues. http://www.odi.govt.nz/what-we-do/nzsl/. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- ↑ Dyson, Ruth (April 2006). "NZ Sign Language to be third official language". The New Zealand Government. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/nz-sign-language-be-third-official-language. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- ↑ 246.0 246.1 Dench, Olivia (July 2010). "Education Statistics of New Zealand: 2009". Education Counts. http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/ece/2507/80221. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- ↑ "Educational attainment of the population" (xls). Education Counts. 2006. http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/excel_doc/0007/17836/Education_attainment_of_the_population.xls. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- ↑ "QuickStats About Culture and Identity: Religious affiliation". Statistics New Zealand. http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2006CensusHomePage/QuickStats/quickstats-about-a-subject/culture-and-identity/religious-affiliation.aspx. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- ↑ "Quick Stats About culture and Identity— 2006 Census" (PDF). Statistics New Zealand. http://www.stats.govt.nz/~/media/Statistics/Publications/Census/2006-reports/quickstats-subject/Culture-Identity/qstats-about-culture-and-identity-2006-census.pdf. Retrieved 28 September 2007.
- ↑ Kennedy 2007, p. 398.
- ↑ Hearn, Terry (March 2009). "English – Importance and influence". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/english/. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- ↑ "Conclusions – British and Irish immigration". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. March 2007. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/culture/home-away-from-home/conclusions. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- ↑ Stenhouse, John (November 2010). "Religion and society – Māori religion". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/religion-and-society/4. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- ↑ "Māori Social Structures". Ministry of Justice. March 2001. http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/publications-archived/2001/he-hinatore-ki-te-ao-maori-a-glimpse-into-the-maori-world/part-1-traditional-maori-concepts/maori-social-structures. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- ↑ Kennedy 2007, p. 400.
- ↑ Kennedy 2007, p. 399.
- ↑ Phillips, Jock (March 2009). "The New Zealanders – Post-war New Zealanders". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/the-new-zealanders/10. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- ↑ Phillips, Jock (March 2009). "The New Zealanders – Ordinary blokes and extraordinary sheilas". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/the-new-zealanders/11. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- ↑ Phillips, Jock (March 2009). "Rural mythologies – The cult of the pioneer". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/rural-mythologies/5. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- ↑ 260.0 260.1 Swarbrick, Nancy (June 2010). "Creative life – Visual arts and crafts". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/creative-life/2. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- ↑ McLintock, Alexander, ed (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Elements of Carving". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/maori-art/4. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- ↑ McLintock, Alexander, ed (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Surface Patterns". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/maori-art/5. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- ↑ McKay, Bill (2004). "Māori architecture: transforming western notions of architecture". Fabrications: the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand 14 (1&2): 1–12. http://www.library.uq.edu.au/ojs/index.php/fab/article/viewFile/108/126.
- ↑ McLintock, Alexander, ed (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Painted Designs". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/maori-art/8. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- ↑ McLintock, Alexander, ed (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Tattooing". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/maori-art/9. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- ↑ 266.0 266.1 "Beginnings – history of NZ painting". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. December 2010. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/culture/nz-painting-history/beginnings. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- ↑ "A new New Zealand art – history of NZ painting". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. November 2010. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/culture/nz-painting-history/a-new-new-zealand-art. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- ↑ "Contemporary Maori art". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. November 2010. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/culture/nz-painting-history/contemporary-maori-art. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- ↑ Rauer, Julie. "Paradise Lost: Contemporary Pacific Art At The Asia Society". Asia Society and Museum. http://www.asianart.com/exhibitions/paradise/article.html. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- ↑ McLintock, Alexander, ed (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Textile Designs". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/maori-art/10. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- ↑ Keane, Basil (March 2009). "Pounamu – jade or greenstone – Implements and adornment". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/pounamu-jade-or-greenstone/4. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- ↑ Wilson, John (March 2009). "Society – Food, drink and dress". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/society/9. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- ↑ Swarbrick, Nancy (June 2010). "Creative life – Design and fashion". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/creative-life/3. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- ↑ 274.0 274.1 "Fashion in New Zealand – New Zealand's fashion industry". The Economist. 28 February 2008. http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=E1_TDSGGNTD. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
- ↑ Swarbrick, Nancy (June 2010). "Creative life – Writing and publishing". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/creative-life/6. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- ↑ "The making of New Zealand literature". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. November 2010. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/culture/literature-in-new-zealand-1930-1960. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- ↑ "New directions in the 1930s – New Zealand literature". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. August 2008. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/culture/literature-1940-60/1930s. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- ↑ "The war and beyond – New Zealand literature". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. November 2007. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/culture/nz-literature/the-growth-of-publishing. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- ↑ 279.0 279.1 Swarbrick, Nancy (June 2010). "Creative life – Music". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/creative-life/7. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- ↑ McLintock, Alexander, ed (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Maori Music". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/maori-music/1. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- ↑ McLintock, Alexander, ed (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Musical Instruments". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/maori-music/6. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- ↑ McLintock, Alexander, ed (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Instruments Used for Non-musical Purposes". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/maori-music/7. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- ↑ McLintock, Alexander, ed (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Music: General History". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/music/1. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- ↑ McLintock, Alexander, ed (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Music: Brass Bands". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/music/3. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- ↑ McLintock, Alexander, ed (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Music: Pipe Bands". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/1966/music/7. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- ↑ Swarbrick, Nancy (June 2010). "Creative life – Performing arts". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/creative-life/8. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- ↑ 287.0 287.1 Swarbrick, Nancy (June 2010). "Creative life – Film and broadcasting". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/creative-life/5. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- ↑ Cieply, Michael; Rose, Jeremy (October 2010). "New Zealand Bends and ‘Hobbit’ Stays". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/28/business/media/28hobbit.html.
- ↑ "Production Guide: Locations". Film New Zealand. http://www.filmnz.com/production-guide/locations.html. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- ↑ "Only peace protects freedoms in post-9/11 world". Reporters Without Borders. 22 October 2008. http://en.rsf.org/only-peace-protects-freedoms-in-22-10-2008,29031. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- ↑ Hearn, Terry (March 2009). "English – Popular culture". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/english/12. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
- ↑ 292.0 292.1 Phillips, Jock (February 2011). "Sports and leisure – Organised sports". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/sports-and-leisure/4. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- ↑ Crawford, Scott (January 1999). "Rugby and the Forging of National Identity". In Nauright, John. Sport, Power And Society In New Zealand: Historical And Contemporary Perspectives. ASSH Studies In Sports History. http://www.la84foundation.org/SportsLibrary/ASSHSSH/ASSHSSH11.pdf.
- ↑ Fougere, Geoff (1989). "Sport, culture and identity: the case of rugby football". In Novitz, David; Willmott, Bill. Culture and identity in New Zealand. pp. 110–122. ISBN 0–477–01422–4. http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/19901879245.html.
- ↑ "Rugby, racing and beer". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. August 2010. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/media/photo/rugby-racing-and-beer. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- ↑ Derby, Mark (December 2010). "Māori–Pākehā relations – Sports and race". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/maori-pakeha-relations/4. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- ↑ "ABS medal tally: Australia finishes third". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 30 August 2004. http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/abs@.nsf/57a31759b55dc970ca2568a1002477b6/be9f47591541e29eca256ef40004f25a!OpenDocument. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- ↑ Bain 2006, p. 69.
- ↑ "World mourns Sir Edmund Hillary". The Age (Australia). January 2008. http://news.theage.com.au/national/world-mourns-sir-edmund-hillary-20080111-1ldx.html.
- ↑ "Sport and Recreation Participation Levels". Sport and Recreation New Zealand. 2009. http://www.activenzsurvey.org.nz/Documents/Participation-Levels.pdf. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- ↑ Yousef, Robyn (January 2011). "Waka ama: Keeping it in the family". New Zealand Herald. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/maori/news/article.cfm?c_id=252&objectid=10703178.
- Bain, Carolyn (2006). New Zealand. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1741045355.
- Garden, Donald (2005). Stoll, Mark. ed. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific: an environmental history. Nature and Human Societies. ABC-CLIO/Greenwood. ISBN 9781576078686.
- Kennedy, Jeffrey (2007). "Leadership and Culture in New Zealand". In Chhokar, Jagdeep; Brodbeck, Felix; House, Robert. Culture and Leadership Across the World: The GLOBE Book of In-Depth Studies of 25 Societies. US: Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-8058-5997-3.
- Hay, Jennifer; Maclagan, Margaret; Gordon, Elizabeth (2008). Dialects of English: New Zealand English. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748625291.
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- Mein Smith, Philippa (2005). A Concise History of New Zealand. Australia: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521542286.
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