Leon Edel (1907-1997). Courtesy Quotessays.

Joseph Leon Edel (September 9, 1907 - September 5, 1997) was a North American literary critic and biographer. He was the elder brother of philosopher Abraham Edel.[1][2]

The Encyclopaedia Britannica calls Edel "the foremost 20th-century authority on the life and works of Henry James." [3]


Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Edel grew up in Yorkton, Saskatchewan. He attended McGill University and the Universite de Paris. While at the former he was associated with the Montreal Group of modernist writers, which included F.R. Scott and A.J.M. Smith, and with them founded the influential McGill Fortnightly Review.

Edel taught English and American literature at Sir George Williams University (now Concordia University (1932-1934), New York University (1960-1972), and the University of Hawaii at Manoa (1972-1978). For the academic year 1965-1966, he was a Fellow on the faculty at the Center for Advanced Studies of Wesleyan University.[4]


Though he wrote on James Joyce (James Joyce: The Last Journey, 1947) and on the Bloomsbury group, his lifework is summed up in his 5-volume biography of Henry James (Henry James: A Biography 1953–1972). Edel discussed the notion of biography in Literary Biography (1957), in particular his conviction that literary biography should enfold a subjective author's self-perceptions into his output. Edel's second and third volumes of the James biography earned him a Pulitzer Prize and a National Book Award in 1963. Edel enjoyed privileged access to letters and documents from James' life housed in the Widener Library at Harvard University, after gaining the blessing of members of James' family.

The discovery of impassioned but inconclusive letters written in 1875-1876 by James to the Russian aristocrat Paul Zhukovski, while Edel was deep in the process of finishing his biography caused an ethical crisis; his decision was to continue to ignore what he considered a peripheral aspect of the self-identified "celibate" and sexually diffident James's life. Edel did treat James's relationships with novelist Constance Fenimore Woolson and sculptor Hendrik Christian Andersen at length, especially in volumes three and four of the biography. After weighing all the evidence, Edel confessed that he was unable to decide whether James experienced a consummated sexual relationship. Although later scholarship and new materials have called into question the accuracy of his portrait of James, Edel's work remains an important source for studies of the author.


"A biography seems irrelevant if it doesn't discover the overlap between what the individual did and the life that made this possible. Without discovering that, you have shapeless happenings and gossip."


Edel's work on James won him both a National Book Award and a Pulitzer Prize.[5]


File:Henry James Biography.JPG
  • Henry James: The Untried Years 1843–1870 (1953)
  • Literary Biography (1957)
  • Henry James: The Conquest of London 1870–1881 (1962) ISBN 0-380-39651-3
  • Henry James: The Middle Years 1882–1895 (1962) ISBN 0-380-39669-6
  • Henry James: The Treacherous Years 1895–1901 (1969) ISBN 0-380-39677-7
  • Henry James: The Master 1901–1916 (1972) ISBN 0-380-39677-7
  • A Bibliography of Henry James: Third Edition (1982) (with Dan Laurence and James Rambeau) ISBN 1-58456-005-3
  • Henry James Literary Criticism — Essays on Literature, American Writers, English Writers (1984) (editor, with Mark Wilson) ISBN 0-940450-22-4
  • Henry James Literary Criticism — French Writers, Other European Writers, The Prefaces to the New York Edition (1984) (editor, with Mark Wilson) ISBN 0-940450-23-2
  • Writing Lives: Principia Biographica (1984) ISBN 0393018822
  • The Complete Plays of Henry James (1990) (editor) ISBN 0-19-504379-0
  • The Visitable Past: A Wartime Memoir (2000) ISBN 0-8248-2431-8

Reviews Edit

  • Writing Lives: Principia Biographica - briefly noted in The New Yorker 60/49 (21 January 1985) : 94

See alsoEdit


  2. Richard Garnett and Janet Adam Smith (11 September 1997). "Obituary: Professor Leon Edel". The Independent. 
  3. "Leon Edel," Encyclopedia Britannica. Britannica Online. Web, Mar. 18, 2011
  5. "Leon Edel," Web, Mar. 18, 2011

External linksEdit


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