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Henry IV, Part 2

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Falstaff raising Recruits by Francis Hayman (1708-1776), 1760's. Courtesy Emory University.

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Henry IV, Part 2 is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed written between 1596 and 1599. It is the third part of a tetralogy, preceded by Richard II and Henry IV, Part 1 and succeeded by Henry V.

SourcesEdit

Shakespeare's primary source for Henry IV, Part 2, as for most of his chronicle histories, was Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles; the publication of the second edition in 1587 provides a terminus ad quem for the play. Edward Hall's The Union of the Two Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York appears also to have been consulted, and scholars have also supposed Shakespeare familiar with Samuel Daniel's poem on the civil wars.

Date and textEdit

Henry IV, Part 2, believed written sometime between 1596 and 1599, was entered into the Register of the Stationers' Company in 1600 by the booksellers Andrew Wise and William Aspley.

The play was published in quarto the same year (printing by Valentine Simmes). Less popular than Henry IV, Part 1, this was the only quarto edition. The play next saw print in the First Folio in 1623.

The quarto's title-page states that the play had been "sundry times publicly acted" before publication. Extant records suggest that both parts of Henry IV were acted at Court in 1612—the records rather cryptically refer to the plays as Sir John Falstaff and Hotspur. A defective record, apparently to the Second part of Falstaff, may indicate a Court performance in 1619.[1]

CharactersEdit

SynopsisEdit

The play picks up where Henry IV, Part One left off. Its focus is on Prince Hal's journey toward kingship, and his ultimate rejection of Falstaff. However, unlike Part One, Hal and Falstaff's stories are almost entirely separate, as the two characters meet only twice and very briefly. The tone of much of the play is elegiac, focusing on Falstaff's age and his closeness to death.

Falstaff is still drinking and engaging in petty criminality in the London underworld. Falstaff appears followed by a new character, a young page whom Prince Hal has assigned him as a joke. Falstaff inquires what the doctor has said about the analysis of his urine, and the page cryptically informs him that the urine is healthier than the patient. Falstaff promises to outfit the page in "vile apparel" (ragged clothing). They go off, Falstaff vowing to find a wife "in the stews" (i.e., the local brothels).

He has a relationship with Doll Tearsheet, a prostitute. When news of a second rebellion arrives, Falstaff joins the army again, and goes to the country to raise forces. There he encounters Mouldy, Bullcalf, Feeble, Shadow and Wart, a band of rustic yokels who are to be conscripted into the loyalist army, with two of whom, Mouldy and Bullcalf, bribing their way out. He also meets with an old school-chum, Master Shallow, and they reminisce about their youthful follies.

In the other storyline, Hal remains an acquaintance of London lowlife and seems unsuited to kingship. His father, King Henry IV, has apparently forgotten his reconciliation with his son in Henry IV, Part One, and is again disappointed in the young prince. Another rebellion is launched against Henry IV, but this time it is defeated, not by a battle, but by the duplicitous political machinations of Hal's brother, Prince John. King Henry then sickens and appears to die. Hal, seeing this, believes he is King and exits with the crown. King Henry, awakening, is devastated, thinking Hal cares only about becoming King. Hal convinces him otherwise and the old king subsequently dies contentedly.

The two storylines meet in the final scene, in which Falstaff, having learned that Hal is now King, travels to London in expectation of great rewards. But Hal rejects him, saying that he has now changed, and can no longer associate with such people. The London lowlifes, expecting a "paradise of thieves" under Hal's governance, are instead purged and imprisoned by the authorities.

At the end of the play, an epilogue thanks the audience and promises that the story will continue in a forthcoming play "with Sir John in it". In fact, the subsequent play, Henry V, does not feature Falstaff except for a brief mention of his death.

ScenesEdit

Act 1, Scene 1: The same.
Act 1, Scene 2: London. A street.
Act 1, Scene 3: York. The Archbishop's palace.
Act 2, Scene 1: London. A street.
Act 2, Scene 2: London. Another street.
Act 2, Scene 3: Warkworth. Before the castle.
Act 2, Scene 4: London. The Boar's-head Tavern in Eastcheap.
Act 3, Scene 1: Westminster. The palace.
Act 3, Scene 2: Gloucestershire. Before SHALLOW'S house.
Act 4, Scene 1: Yorkshire. Gaultree Forest.
Act 4, Scene 2: Another part of the forest.
Act 4, Scene 3: Another part of the forest.
Act 4, Scene 4: Westminster. The Jerusalem Chamber.
Act 4, Scene 5: Another chamber.
Act 5, Scene 1: Gloucestershire. SHALLOW'S house.
Act 5, Scene 2: Westminster. The palace.
Act 5, Scene 3: Gloucestershire. SHALLOW'S orchard.
Act 5, Scene 4: London. A street.
Act 5, Scene 5: A public place near Westminster Abbey.

ReputationEdit

Part 2 is generally seen as a less successful play than Part 1. Its structure, in which Falstaff and Hal barely meet, can be criticized as undramatic. Some critics believe that Shakespeare never intended to write a sequel, and that he was hampered by a lack of remaining historical material with the result that the comic scenes come across as mere "filler". However, the scenes involving Falstaff and Justice Shallow are admired for their touching elegiac comedy, and the scene of Falstaff's rejection can be extremely powerful onstage.

Pop cultureEdit

The Ultimate Edition of Monty Python and the Holy Grail features subtitles using Henry IV, Part 2, correlating scenes in the film to lines from the play.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Halliday, F. E. A Shakespeare Companion 1564-1964. Baltimore, Penguin, 1964; p. 215.

See alsoEdit

Shakespeare on screen (Henry IV, Part 2)

External linksEdit

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