A calligram is a poem, phrase, or word in which the typeface, calligraphy or handwriting is arranged in a way that creates a visual image. The image created by the words expresses visually what the word, or words, say. In a poem, it manifests visually the theme presented by the text of the poem. Guillaume Apollinaire was a famous calligram writer and author of a book of poems called Calligrammes. His poem written in the form of the Eiffel Tower is an example of a calligram.

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Alternative poetry

Oral tradition
Oral interpretation
Oral literature
Oral poetry • Ethnopoetics
Poetry reading
How to read poetry out loud
Performance poetry
How to perform poetry
Sound poetry • Slam poetry
Spoken word • Rap • Dub

Found poetry

Cento  • Erasure poetry
Cut-up technique
Flarf • Spoetry

Visual poetry

Pattern poetry
Carmen figuratum
Diamante • Calligram
Concrete poetry
How to write a concrete poem
Haptic poetry
Concrete and visual poets

Digital poetry

Hypertext poetry
Interactive poetry

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  • Sonja A.J. Neef: Kalligramme. Zur Medialität einer Schrift. Anhand von Paul van Ostaijens "De feesten van angst en pijn". Amsterdam: ASCA Press 2000 [1]
  • Deme, Zoltan: Poem-miniatures. In: Chords of Scales, Globe Publish House 1995. Library of Congress No: 2003278749 [2]
  • Post-War Japanese Poetry (with lots of Japanese calligrams), Penguin Books, 1972.

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